tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-35499211505627901062016-11-05T06:37:47.602-06:00WATCHING FOR ROCKS Travels of a Sharp-Eyed GeologistNina Fhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08965179274125274725noreply@blogger.comBlogger353125tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3549921150562790106.post-7547780592699776862016-06-29T20:10:00.000-06:002016-06-30T07:38:30.188-06:00Living the Dream, Day 6 – Elves Chasm and the Great Unconformity<div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">A rosy–fingered dawn metamorphoses into a vibrantly blue morning sky. In the blink of an eye, shadows and colors shift on the canyon walls. Another plate of scrambled eggs sits balanced on my lap. It is Day Six of our Colorado River rafting adventure in Grand Canyon. A question hangs suspended in midair. Where exactly in this magnificent chasm <i>are</i> we now?<o:p></o:p></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-RBnf6Yapy_c/V3Rvu8u2jdI/AAAAAAAALNg/wLT7-vSRoWkLvMFbHJAeAPr98JmpESfEQCLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B516a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-RBnf6Yapy_c/V3Rvu8u2jdI/AAAAAAAALNg/wLT7-vSRoWkLvMFbHJAeAPr98JmpESfEQCLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B516a.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">A balanced breakfast <b>(Click on any&nbsp;pic to enlargenate)</b></td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"></span></div><a name='more'></a><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">We camped last night at river mile 109, just downstream of Bass Rapid and Hotauta Canyon. A block of tilted Grand Canyon Supergroup rocks exposes itself downstream for a few short miles along this stretch of river and then disappears.</span><br /><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-ezkGjUnLzJk/V3Rv4VqhaSI/AAAAAAAALNo/YYG31ZVxPT4GqTUHMEdUgRxUFA6g8TqnQCLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B519a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="235" src="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-ezkGjUnLzJk/V3Rv4VqhaSI/AAAAAAAALNo/YYG31ZVxPT4GqTUHMEdUgRxUFA6g8TqnQCLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B519a.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Grand Canyon Supergroup tilts at river level</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Once upon a time, North America looked much different than it does today. For one thing, the continental landmass was smaller. Studies of the chemical composition of Grand Canyon rocks have led geologists to conclude that in this region the continent grew by collision and accretion of island arcs and other continental fragments during subduction of one ancient tectonic plate beneath another. A modern parallel to this tectonic growth is likely Indonesia, where the Australian plate is sliding northward, subducting beneath the Pacific plate and forming the volcanic island arcs of the Indonesian archipelago.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-HDbTzGAzcEw/V3RwEmyTuYI/AAAAAAAALNw/9r1AdKkEhrUZopVKS3r7gJq1-37qASMhgCLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B523a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="230" src="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-HDbTzGAzcEw/V3RwEmyTuYI/AAAAAAAALNw/9r1AdKkEhrUZopVKS3r7gJq1-37qASMhgCLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B523a.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Upper Granite Gorge</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-9cCzfqeCgYs/V3RwNbSsaXI/AAAAAAAALN4/Gu-fdDYyBos_LSFlzrbWadCDjdNzvDvFgCLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B527a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-9cCzfqeCgYs/V3RwNbSsaXI/AAAAAAAALN4/Gu-fdDYyBos_LSFlzrbWadCDjdNzvDvFgCLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B527a.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Metamorphic rocks of the Upper Granite Gorge</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Early 20<sup>th</sup> century studies in Grand Canyon identified different “packages” of deformed metasedimentary and intrusive igneous rocks that resulted from this tectonic activity. At 1.84 billion years old, the igneous intrusive Elves Chasm pluton is considered to be “basement,” the oldest rocks upon which subsequent sedimentary and igneous rocks were deposited or intruded.</span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-Vp8S_IUFk8M/V3RwdeA9FQI/AAAAAAAALOE/MdBihOx7Mq8tg8Au8sQLaqm9N1o9YdAFwCLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B529a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-Vp8S_IUFk8M/V3RwdeA9FQI/AAAAAAAALOE/MdBihOx7Mq8tg8Au8sQLaqm9N1o9YdAFwCLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B529a.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Faulting? Shearing? Something happened here.</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-gnbWXqajXpo/V3RwjsVb1PI/AAAAAAAALOM/1z-m0v5rGQY9sRBsl91HRXv44dx7h1NmwCLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B530a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-gnbWXqajXpo/V3RwjsVb1PI/AAAAAAAALOM/1z-m0v5rGQY9sRBsl91HRXv44dx7h1NmwCLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B530a.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Note convoluted rocks at lower right (click to enlargenate)</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-GeGGD0t-dVo/V3Rwqp--QXI/AAAAAAAALOY/U0pyofsxlus7APIsQGXk8IRif0pFWEPOwCLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B531a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-GeGGD0t-dVo/V3Rwqp--QXI/AAAAAAAALOY/U0pyofsxlus7APIsQGXk8IRif0pFWEPOwCLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B531a.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Convoluted rocks with a rapid</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">In the Upper Granite Gorge, between river miles 113 and 120 (from Waltenberg Canyon to Blacktail Canyon, where we will have lunch and a serenade), the contact between the Elves Chasm pluton (1.84 billion years old) and a younger (1.75–1.73 billion years old) Grand Canyon Metamorphic Suite of schists is exposed.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-_GrY5L7pF-g/V3RxEcQpoZI/AAAAAAAALOk/o5sszayjl8cPsQ92lobTXT4Lwy0YSsikQCLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B539a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-_GrY5L7pF-g/V3RxEcQpoZI/AAAAAAAALOk/o5sszayjl8cPsQ92lobTXT4Lwy0YSsikQCLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B539a.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Elves Chasm gneiss?&nbsp;</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-u0mgqM92yMc/V3RxNVyvhAI/AAAAAAAALOs/7rqJkhFarZ4dr-jO8K-zgnS-Dz5C87zcwCLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B543a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-u0mgqM92yMc/V3RxNVyvhAI/AAAAAAAALOs/7rqJkhFarZ4dr-jO8K-zgnS-Dz5C87zcwCLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B543a.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">A fellow rafter is mesmerized by the enormity of it all</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-0Ja13PRowgE/V3RxUc2hcPI/AAAAAAAALO0/2pDuIgGPlq0CwTXI_i5tgsgsKwg9K-auwCLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B544a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-0Ja13PRowgE/V3RxUc2hcPI/AAAAAAAALO0/2pDuIgGPlq0CwTXI_i5tgsgsKwg9K-auwCLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B544a.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Looks to me like pillow basalt in lower right</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Where exactly <i>is</i>this contact? I have no idea. Our guides are not geologists and so there is no one to point these things out to me. My research is done after the fact, long after I’ve returned home from this trip of a lifetime. I study my photos, and read my references, and try to weave a thread of sense from all I have seen. I need another river trip in a bad way!<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-SoWWyhgz9uU/V3RyuYK2J0I/AAAAAAAALPI/vPg_RZp4TcA3dKrXKd_p7fpwafVfGLY-wCLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B551a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-SoWWyhgz9uU/V3RyuYK2J0I/AAAAAAAALPI/vPg_RZp4TcA3dKrXKd_p7fpwafVfGLY-wCLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B551a.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Igneous dikes cross cut the older gneiss</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-7XhuEbQIY74/V3Ry5AjM0xI/AAAAAAAALPQ/XchKEM4rJNM3tm9p43ySfceU2_gENX9NgCLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B554a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-7XhuEbQIY74/V3Ry5AjM0xI/AAAAAAAALPQ/XchKEM4rJNM3tm9p43ySfceU2_gENX9NgCLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B554a.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">More cross cutting</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">In the meantime, I nearly fall out of the boat when we encounter the SE–NW trending Monument Fold. The folded sedimentary layers look to be the Cambrian Tapeats Sandstone, quite a bit younger than the metamorphic Elves Chasm pluton and suite of schists beneath.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">I am pretty sure this perky little structure is <i><b>not</b></i> the Monument Fold.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-Tb2paqYYVkY/V3RzLcqU3GI/AAAAAAAALPY/2HseSVVhpGQXWvWd9-L4Z4CbFxW4UQ_ngCLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B575a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="227" src="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-Tb2paqYYVkY/V3RzLcqU3GI/AAAAAAAALPY/2HseSVVhpGQXWvWd9-L4Z4CbFxW4UQ_ngCLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B575a.jpg" width="400" /></a></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">On the other hand, I am fairly certain this behemoth is.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-yNC3dfmg8so/V3RzhaUysbI/AAAAAAAALPk/kX7eYm7hxAYJirCGBkwFbKqDpphxobtdACLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B576a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-yNC3dfmg8so/V3RzhaUysbI/AAAAAAAALPk/kX7eYm7hxAYJirCGBkwFbKqDpphxobtdACLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B576a.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Monument Fold near river mile 116</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-H4KExppjG6o/V3RzrTkHJTI/AAAAAAAALPw/A8UgdFCfVS8v-0TXY2PEb9uaNnNQHsWUwCLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B577a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-H4KExppjG6o/V3RzrTkHJTI/AAAAAAAALPw/A8UgdFCfVS8v-0TXY2PEb9uaNnNQHsWUwCLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B577a.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Close up of Monument Fold</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-YgAJhyBTm7k/V3RzzQ3DjtI/AAAAAAAALP4/piGZfV5vVOc1Q6WaBt3YrOmHAhjWfJeOQCLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B578a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-YgAJhyBTm7k/V3RzzQ3DjtI/AAAAAAAALP4/piGZfV5vVOc1Q6WaBt3YrOmHAhjWfJeOQCLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B578a.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Monument Fold&nbsp;</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">The fold runs behind Explorer’s Monument and presents itself again downstream, just beyond river mile 118. I consider that it is likely the surface manifestation of a reactivated Precambrian thrust fault buried deep in the ground. There seems to be a lot of that sort of thing going on in these parts. When the folding occurred, I have no idea.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-1OxB9B3jgos/V3R0dFJiciI/AAAAAAAALQE/M55XJbSmTusXYohJZXyoy8z_dXIEeaO0gCLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B585a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-1OxB9B3jgos/V3R0dFJiciI/AAAAAAAALQE/M55XJbSmTusXYohJZXyoy8z_dXIEeaO0gCLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B585a.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">The Great Unconformity at river level, from the mouth of Royal Arch Creek <br />and Elves Chasm</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">There is missing time here, between the metamorphic rocks and overlying Tapeats Sandstone. Over a billion years is unaccounted for in the geologic record. This is the Great Unconformity at river level.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Y1wusliX61s/V3R0vABigBI/AAAAAAAALQM/HHvwjC2hyTM_4e43XhL14qZo82x7kCaDQCLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B586a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Y1wusliX61s/V3R0vABigBI/AAAAAAAALQM/HHvwjC2hyTM_4e43XhL14qZo82x7kCaDQCLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B586a.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">A short hike takes us to Elves Chasm</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Around river mile 117 we disembark at Royal Arch Creek for a short jaunt. The Elves Chasm waterfall is a major reward for minimal exertion. Somewhere around here is the contact between the Elves Chasm pluton (gneiss) and the Grand Canyon Metamorphic Suite. I wish I could recognize it or have someone to point it out to me. I could be right on top of it and not know it.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">&nbsp;<table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-90yVYJyJAxM/V3R1EsU_r0I/AAAAAAAALQY/ZxCWa3-zMEo_h1_NgHjh9PfCi54J1zCCQCLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B589a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="400" src="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-90yVYJyJAxM/V3R1EsU_r0I/AAAAAAAALQY/ZxCWa3-zMEo_h1_NgHjh9PfCi54J1zCCQCLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B589a.jpg" width="227" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Elves Chasm</td></tr></tbody></table><o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Dm8X_NKJ9OI/V3R1QNDTLPI/AAAAAAAALQg/hbiQ7IDWSD4GvACYzHatJp2HGBA3K9HWwCLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B591a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="400" src="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Dm8X_NKJ9OI/V3R1QNDTLPI/AAAAAAAALQg/hbiQ7IDWSD4GvACYzHatJp2HGBA3K9HWwCLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B591a.jpg" width="227" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Explorer's Monument from<br />Elves Chasm</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-TMQkCojY1ws/V3R1Y0anBJI/AAAAAAAALQs/Svr7jk7mO_QYhlDonrP6DT-dfVMVTDi2QCLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B593a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="400" src="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-TMQkCojY1ws/V3R1Y0anBJI/AAAAAAAALQs/Svr7jk7mO_QYhlDonrP6DT-dfVMVTDi2QCLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B593a.jpg" width="227" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">The two river elves</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Soon it is time to jaunt back to the boats. A lunchtime serenade beneath the Great Unconformity awaits us downstream at Blacktail Canyon.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-eyh9GN2WrsY/V3R1nEBzIYI/AAAAAAAALQ4/zNMsRP1ojR0thSA39sjvbfxwDrbJSvE7ACLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B598a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="400" src="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-eyh9GN2WrsY/V3R1nEBzIYI/AAAAAAAALQ4/zNMsRP1ojR0thSA39sjvbfxwDrbJSvE7ACLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B598a.jpg" width="227" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Back to the boats</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-2IRQxbHW-u0/V3R1sryY4jI/AAAAAAAALRA/cp_-C6jTQcggA4fDrF-XxzpGG5KEPiYZACLcB/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B599a.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="400" src="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-2IRQxbHW-u0/V3R1sryY4jI/AAAAAAAALRA/cp_-C6jTQcggA4fDrF-XxzpGG5KEPiYZACLcB/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B599a.jpg" width="397" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Datura</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;"><b><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">*****************************************</span></i></b></div><div class="MsoNormal"><b><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></b></div><div class="MsoNormal"><b><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></b></div><div class="MsoNormal"><b><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">References:<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></div><div class="MsoNormal"><b><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></b></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Karlstrom, K.E., Ilg, B.R., Williams, M.L., Hawkins, D.P., Bowring, S.A., and Seaman, S.J., 2003, Paleoproterozoic Rocks of the Granite Gorges, in <i>Grand Canyon Geology</i>, Beus, S.S. and Morales, M., eds., 2<sup>nd</sup> edition, Oxford University Press<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Stevens, L., 2013, <i>The Colorado River in Grand Canyon – River Map &amp; Guide</i>, Grand Canyon Wildlands Council<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><o:p></o:p></span></div>Nina Fhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08965179274125274725noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3549921150562790106.post-45271715871571880082016-05-25T17:13:00.001-06:002016-06-19T19:43:26.334-06:00Living the Dream, Day 5 – Bright Angel and Beyond<span style="font-size: small;">We are deep within the metamorphic rocks of Granite Gorge, more than a mile below the rim of Grand Canyon. At river mile 88, in the area of Phantom Ranch, we cross beneath two narrow bridges. </span> <a href="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-sNwyskT3E44/V0Yt4At76VI/AAAAAAAALG4/9k2j07oKIxQ/s1600-h/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520487%252528a%252529%25255B4%25255D.jpg"><img alt="GC Raft Trip 487(a)" border="0" height="229" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-ug6rDXqyVgk/V0Yt4zW6MZI/AAAAAAAALG8/xOpOkc4tE4Q/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520487%252528a%252529_thumb%25255B1%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800" style="background-image: none; border: 0px; display: block; float: none; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; padding-left: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px;" title="GC Raft Trip 487(a)" width="400" /></a> <span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-size: medium;"></span></span><br /><a name='more'></a><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-size: medium;">I</span><span style="font-size: small;">n 1928, construction of the Kaibab (Black) Bridge changed the dynamics of tourism along the Colorado River. Its purpose was to connect the North Kaibab trail and the South Kaibab trail, making travel across the river safer for both humans and mule traffic.</span> </span><br /><br /><span style="font-size: small;">A short distance downstream is the Bright Angel (Silver) Bridge, built in the late 1960s. This bridge not only brings hikers from the south rim to Phantom Ranch but also is the support structure for an extensive water pipeline that brings water from Roaring Springs on the north rim down Bright Angel Canyon, through Phantom Ranch, across the Colorado River, and up to the south rim. </span><br /><br /><span style="font-size: small;">These two bridges are the only permanent access across the river for hundreds of miles either upstream or down.</span> <br /><br /><span style="font-size: small;">It is a cold, wet day as we travel downstream to our second rendezvous with the tilted beds of the Grand Canyon Supergroup. Lunchtime is a soggy maelstrom of shivering humanity. With the sun still obscured behind a thick veil of clouds, there is just no chance to get warm. For lunch, all I want is a large cup of hot tea. I have no desire to choke down a cold sandwich. Back on the boat, I am too cold to even take pictures.</span><br /><span style="font-size: small;"></span><br />The night’s camp is downstream of Bass Rapid on a narrow, rocky shelf of sand. Wet clothes are draped to dry over every available surface. The sky clears and I am warm once again. I think I'm warm enough to have a beer.<br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><br /></div><br /><div align="center"><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/50zzJqJbcyU" width="560"></iframe> <br /><br />*************************************************** <b><i><br /></i></b><br /><div style="text-align: left;"><b><i><br /></i></b><br /><div style="text-align: left;"><b><i>References:</i></b> <br /><a href="http://grandcanyonhistory.clas.asu.edu/sites_coloradorivercorridor_blackbridge.html">http://grandcanyonhistory.clas.asu.edu/sites_coloradorivercorridor_blackbridge.html</a> (accessed 5/25/2016) <br /><br /><br /></div></div></div>Nina Fhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08965179274125274725noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3549921150562790106.post-44489851586163295102016-04-09T14:22:00.000-06:002016-04-10T17:36:48.466-06:00Living the Dream, Day 5 – Granite Gorge and The Great Unknown<span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;; font-size: medium;">We huddle together, this early May day, on a 12–person (14, if you include the guides) inflatable J–rig party boat that glides&nbsp;through the rapids with relative ease. We are ready for whatever thrill these cold riffles and rapids offer, so we hold on less and less, jostling and bouncing our way down the Colorado River. Soon the canyon narrows. Its vertical walls become higher, with fewer escape routes should anyone need to climb out. The rapids become larger and longer. We are within the ancient metamorphic rocks of Granite Gorge, home to the deepest, darkest, oldest, and baddest rocks in Grand Canyon. These are the crystalline basement rocks that underlie the North American continent. I am exactly where I want to be.</span> <br /><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-P1sDeMZ6PoQ/Vwle4lSqfaI/AAAAAAAALFY/oxfrqm-0Mc4/s1600-h/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520427%252528a%252529%25255B6%25255D.jpg" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img alt="GC Raft Trip 427(a)" border="0" height="228" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-tyrhdDlu5Xw/Vwle7bYLyII/AAAAAAAALFc/ehUisbBSCTI/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520427%252528a%252529_thumb%25255B3%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800" style="background-image: none; border: 0px; display: block; float: none; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; padding-left: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px;" title="GC Raft Trip 427(a)" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Into the jaws of&nbsp;Granite Gorge (<b>click on any pic to enlargenate</b>)</td></tr></tbody></table><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;; font-size: medium;"></span><br /><a name='more'></a><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;; font-size: medium;">However, it is no wonder that, back in the summer of 1869, John Wesley Powell’s men loathed and feared this stretch of the Colorado River. They had endured so much already. One of their boats, the <i>No–Name</i>, had been lost early on their exploratory expedition of the river and its canyons. One member had already turned back not far from their starting point at Green River, Wyoming. By the time they passed the Little Colorado and entered Granite Gorge, their meager rations were even more meager, lost to spoilage and the river. Their oak boats had been swamped in the rapids. They had lost oars. Their clothes were threadbare and shoes were a luxury. Where shoreline existed Powell and his men would use rope to “line” their boats down a particularly troublesome rapid. If lining was not possible they would portage, carrying every single item including their unwieldy boats across massive boulders. It could take all day. </span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;; font-size: medium;"></span>&nbsp; <br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-NCjSVvx8nBc/Vwle8g-SMxI/AAAAAAAALFg/oEpvGl_iRok/s1600-h/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520432%252528a%252529%25255B4%25255D.jpg" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img alt="GC Raft Trip 432(a)" border="0" height="233" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-kfFaKqutLPo/Vwle_KFWq1I/AAAAAAAALFk/tKupjiDH1dQ/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520432%252528a%252529_thumb%25255B1%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800" style="background-image: none; border: 0px; display: block; float: none; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; padding-left: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px;" title="GC Raft Trip 432(a)" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Granite Gorge</td></tr></tbody></table><br /><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><img alt="GC Raft Trip 439(a)" border="0" height="233" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-3zDJGl0FtRc/VwlfDD8ppsI/AAAAAAAALFs/kdo0IWlfnvc/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520439%252528a%252529_thumb%25255B1%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800" style="background-image: none; border: 0px; display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; padding-left: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px;" title="GC Raft Trip 439(a)" width="400" /></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Crystalline basement rocks in Granite Gorge</td></tr></tbody></table><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;; font-size: medium;">Regarding Granite Gorge, Powell would later write in his Report:</span> <br /><div style="text-align: left;"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;; font-size: medium;">“We are ready to start on our way down the Great Unknown. Our boats, tied to a common stake, are chafing each other, as they are tossed by the fretful river. They ride high and buoyant, for the loads are lighter than we could desire. We have but a month’s rations remaining. The flour has been resifted through the mosquito net sieve; the spoiled bacon has been dried, and the worst of it boiled; the few pounds of dried apples have been spread in the sun and reshrunken to their normal bulk; the sugar has all melted, and gone on its way down the river; but we have a large sack of coffee. The lighting of the boats has this advantage: they will ride the waves better, and we shall have but little to carry when we make a portage.</span></i> <br /><div style="text-align: left;"><em><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;; font-size: medium;"></span></em>&nbsp; <i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;; font-size: medium;">We are three quarters of a mile in the depths of the earth, and the great river shrinks into insignificance, as it dashes its angry waves against the walls and cliffs, that rise to the world above; they are but puny ripples, and we but pigmies, running up and down the sands, or lost among the boulders.</span></i> <em><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;; font-size: medium;"></span></em>&nbsp; <br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" class="YOUTUBE-iframe-video" data-thumbnail-src="https://i.ytimg.com/vi/6jm7saiJCD4/0.jpg" frameborder="0" height="266" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/6jm7saiJCD4?feature=player_embedded" width="320"></iframe></div><br /><em></em>&nbsp; <span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><i>We have an unknown distance yet to run; an unknown river yet to explore. What falls there are, we know not; what rocks beset the channel, we know not; what walls rise over the river, we know not. Ah, well! We may conjecture many things. The men talk as cheerfully as ever; jests are bandied about freely this morning; but to me the cheer is somber and the jests are ghastly.” (</i>quoted in “Beyond the 100<sup>th</sup> Meridian” by Wallace Stegner<i>)</i></span></span> <em><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;; font-size: medium;"></span></em>&nbsp; <br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-sYfbWTDB7xc/VwlfEZCRGGI/AAAAAAAALFw/sMrFuNO4Yhg/s1600-h/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520441%252528a%252529%25255B4%25255D.jpg" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img alt="GC Raft Trip 441(a)" border="0" height="228" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-ViirL08siDQ/VwlfG46IvhI/AAAAAAAALF0/QzZbtPLEzB0/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520441%252528a%252529_thumb%25255B1%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800" style="background-image: none; border: 0px; display: block; float: none; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; padding-left: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px;" title="GC Raft Trip 441(a)" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">An unsuccessful attempt at air drying after running the rapids</td></tr></tbody></table><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;; font-size: medium;">In Granite Gorge, Powell and his men had no choice. They <i>had</i> to run the rapids. The river, squeezed into the narrowest of channels, grabbed hold of their boats and would not let go. There was little to no shoreline for a camp site. They stopped when daylight ran out or they were exhausted, or both, and curled up to rest among the boulders and beneath the cliffs, the ceaseless roar of the river their constant companion. The monumental walls concealed the sky, and along with the waves and rapids took up all the space and left them with little of comfort. </span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;; font-size: medium;"></span>&nbsp; <br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-7MYrgLQ5AWo/VwlfHvFcAvI/AAAAAAAALF4/U8UNy8kSqtA/s1600-h/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520451%252528a%252529%25255B5%25255D.jpg" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img alt="GC Raft Trip 451(a)" border="0" height="400" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-0p_Ei8cwnIQ/VwlfKqhNsoI/AAAAAAAALF8/2dPHaMtJePg/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520451%252528a%252529_thumb%25255B2%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800" style="background-image: none; border: 0px; display: block; float: none; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; padding-left: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px;" title="GC Raft Trip 451(a)" width="228" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Neoprened feet photo</td></tr></tbody></table><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;; font-size: medium;">The element of the unknown is vastly different now than it was back in 1869. We do not travel the same river as John Wesley Powell and his men did. Today, Glen Canyon dam controls the amount of water that flows downstream. Maps tell us what to expect at each river mile. We have it easy, with our neoprene booties, waterproof rain gear, soft sandy camp sites, and meals that include coffee with sugar and bacon that is not rancid. Safety is crucial. </span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;; font-size: medium;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;; font-size: medium;"></span>&nbsp; <br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" class="YOUTUBE-iframe-video" data-thumbnail-src="https://i.ytimg.com/vi/vK1QprNeU94/0.jpg" frameborder="0" height="266" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/vK1QprNeU94?feature=player_embedded" width="320"></iframe></div><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;; font-size: medium;"></span>&nbsp; <span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;; font-size: medium;">Nevertheless, the excitement still exists, if not the fear. We embark on a journey down the Colorado River with our own set of expectations of the danger and hazards involved. Motorized J–rigs are some of the most stable craft out there, but there are other, smaller rafts and dories that ratchet up the thrill factor a few notches. I am here to appreciate the geology of Grand Canyon, the deep time of its rocks that are nearly two billion years old. I want to experience the whole canyon in the time allowed me. I am grateful to those who came before me and, risking their lives, charted my route. </span><br /><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-2j6nyBr2Qyc/VwlfLjPgUlI/AAAAAAAALGA/CoHDxjRgU_M/s1600-h/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520468%252528a%252529%25255B4%25255D.jpg" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img alt="GC Raft Trip 468(a)" border="0" height="228" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-6Ycq6CLCMsM/VwlfN47pzYI/AAAAAAAALGE/ZtmWfLafX9Y/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520468%252528a%252529_thumb%25255B1%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800" style="background-image: none; border-image: none; border: 0px; display: block; float: none; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; padding-left: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px;" title="GC Raft Trip 468(a)" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Outstanding example of foliation in the&nbsp;schist</td></tr></tbody></table><br /><br /><div align="center">**********************************************************</div><br /><br /><b><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;;">References:</span></i></b> <br /><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;;">Abbott, L., and Cook, T., 2004, Hiking the Grand Canyon’s Geology, The Mountaineer Books</span> <br /><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;;">Blakey, R. and Ranney, W., 2008, Ancient Landscapes of the Colorado Plateau<i>, </i>Grand Canyon Association</span> <span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;;"></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;;">Collier, M., 1980, An Introduction to Grand Canyon Geology, Grand Canyon Natural History Association</span> <span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;;"></span><br />Karlstrom, K., Ilg, B., Williams, M., Hawkins, D., Bowring, S., and Seaman, S., Paleoproterozoic Rocks of the Granite Gorges, <i>in </i>Beus, S. and Morales, M., eds., Grand Canyon Geology, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press <br /><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;;">Stegner, W., 1953, Beyond the Hundredth Meridian: John Wesley Powell and the Second Opening of the West, Penguin Books (1992)</span> <span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;;"></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot;;">Stevens, L., 2013, The Colorado River in Grand Canyon – River Map &amp; Guide, Grand Canyon Wildlands Council</span><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /></div></div>Nina Fhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08965179274125274725noreply@blogger.com3tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3549921150562790106.post-31423788760027695422016-03-09T17:04:00.002-07:002016-03-09T20:00:39.252-07:00Living the Dream, Day 5 – A Wild Ride in the Grand Canyon Supergroup <b><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Saturday, May 9, 2015</span></i></b><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">:&nbsp; Up early. Slept fairly well last night, after organizing sandy tent stuff and composing Friday’s journal entry in the dwindling daylight. Camped beneath walls of the Precambrian Dox Formation and Cardenas Lava.&nbsp; It looks like yesterday’s storm has passed, leaving lingering thready clouds and a sunrise reflecting orange on the distant cliffs. Or is it pink? Or burnished yellow–gold–chrysanthemum?</span></i><br /><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i><br /><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">We are advised to put on our long thermals in anticipation of today’s frigid ride. Kris and I are glad that we each have a blue bag full of layers and rain gear. Hypothermia is something we hope to avoid.<o:p></o:p></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">After a tasty breakfast (more scrambled eggs and cowboy coffee!) we gather along the river bank in our bucket brigade and heave every bit of camp gear back onto the boat. Another day of rafting on the Colorado River has been launched.</span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-L6MHCAUGSaQ/VuCpi5N2tII/AAAAAAAALCg/ST_xsHIPQ9Q/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B379%2528a%2529.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="226" src="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-L6MHCAUGSaQ/VuCpi5N2tII/AAAAAAAALCg/ST_xsHIPQ9Q/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B379%2528a%2529.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">We take a short hike to some petroglyphs (<b>click on any pic to enlargenate</b>)</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"></span></i></div><a name='more'></a><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><o:p></o:p></span></i><br /><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">After breakfast, a short hike in the warm sunshine takes us up onto the Dox Formation. For a few minutes we inspect a cluster of petroglyphs, etched onto weathered sandstone boulders that have found their way down the bluff above Tanner Rapid.<o:p></o:p></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-ISnn_bcSbPs/VuCp0XHWjwI/AAAAAAAALCk/ZgrJ1XTkgPU/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B380%2528a%2529.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="226" src="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-ISnn_bcSbPs/VuCp0XHWjwI/AAAAAAAALCk/ZgrJ1XTkgPU/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B380%2528a%2529.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">The Cardenas Lava towers above and behind the Dox Formation</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-AG6oKB-BVPc/VuCp99pYhSI/AAAAAAAALCo/d7c-Leo76Ho/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B384%2528a%2529.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="226" src="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-AG6oKB-BVPc/VuCp99pYhSI/AAAAAAAALCo/d7c-Leo76Ho/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B384%2528a%2529.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Petroglyphs etched into weathered sandstone</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">From the hillside we see the sky reflected in our first rapid of the day, and a fine rapid it appears to be. Dang, that sky is blue!<o:p></o:p></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-_2Rl3iU0FKs/VuCqV_gjawI/AAAAAAAALCw/cmq5T9Bp0Wk/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B383%2528a%2529.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="226" src="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-_2Rl3iU0FKs/VuCqV_gjawI/AAAAAAAALCw/cmq5T9Bp0Wk/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B383%2528a%2529.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Tanner Rapid awaits at river mile 69</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">A few minutes later we are in it, the first of some 29 rapids on a day I will forever call “The Wild River Ride!”<o:p></o:p></span></i></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-_-d9Pxxvqxc/VuCqql_DlgI/AAAAAAAALC4/bW62COJu014/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B389%2528a%2529.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="226" src="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-_-d9Pxxvqxc/VuCqql_DlgI/AAAAAAAALC4/bW62COJu014/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B389%2528a%2529.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Jay gets his groove on for the rapids</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-WUzoM21H-RI/VuCq3n0PRpI/AAAAAAAALC8/85sQoPN_5co/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B390%2528a%2529.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="226" src="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-WUzoM21H-RI/VuCq3n0PRpI/AAAAAAAALC8/85sQoPN_5co/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B390%2528a%2529.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">A wide, calm stretch between the rapids</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Tanner, Hance, Sockdolager, Grapevine, Zoroaster, Horn Creek (between the horns), Granite, Hermit (yikes!), Crystal (a biggie at 10+), Tuna Creek, Agate, Sapphire, Turquoise, Ruby, Serpentine, Bass – today we run them all and more, under the guidance of boatmen who seem to know what they are doing, all while wearing wardrobes that are strictly river guide chic.<o:p></o:p></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-QRPtP2E73fw/VuCrQAstrXI/AAAAAAAALDE/J4wd4Js71uw/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B391%2528a%2529.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="226" src="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-QRPtP2E73fw/VuCrQAstrXI/AAAAAAAALDE/J4wd4Js71uw/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B391%2528a%2529.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Guide BJ in his Rasta cap</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-CA2bqLzYbDU/VuCrZR5QZsI/AAAAAAAALDM/ZKCuPeJn_PY/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B392%2528a%2529.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="226" src="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-CA2bqLzYbDU/VuCrZR5QZsI/AAAAAAAALDM/ZKCuPeJn_PY/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B392%2528a%2529.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">I don't know how the guides maneuver in this footwear.</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Kris and I wedge ourselves neatly into the back of the boat, in front of the guides who steer from the rear. We are layered in early May Colorado River white water regalia – thermal underwear, fleece top, hiking pants, rain pants, hat, rain jacket, neoprene booties and socks (which were bought at the last minute and totally worth paying full price!), and whatever other layers we pull out of our over–equipped blue bags. It certainly isn’t July with triple digit temperatures today.<o:p></o:p></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-umPo7JSHbdc/VuCroHUGiKI/AAAAAAAALDU/toQlWZ3XkoM/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B388%2528a%2529.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="226" src="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-umPo7JSHbdc/VuCroHUGiKI/AAAAAAAALDU/toQlWZ3XkoM/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B388%2528a%2529.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Yours Truly on the right, with Kris next to me</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Our time near the Cardenas Lava is brief. The igneous sills and dikes of the 1.07–billion–year–old Cardenas can only be seen near river mile 65 in eastern Grand Canyon, above last night’s camp site. Volcanic activity that brought about the eruption of Cardenas Lava onto sediments of the Dox Formation marks the end of deposition of the Unkar Group. We, on the other hand, are just beginning our down–canyon journey into earlier and older layers of the Grand Canyon Supergroup and beyond.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" class="YOUTUBE-iframe-video" data-thumbnail-src="https://i.ytimg.com/vi/Z22FNsfnxYA/0.jpg" frameborder="0" height="266" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/Z22FNsfnxYA?feature=player_embedded" width="320"></iframe></div><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">From one rapid to the next, the motor hums us quietly along. I never do think to ask the guides about the average speed of the river’s current. Oh, well.&nbsp;</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-FJC5VD0XJxY/VuCslUz9RGI/AAAAAAAALDk/c2I7Ac7c7f4/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B400%2528a%2529.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="226" src="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-FJC5VD0XJxY/VuCslUz9RGI/AAAAAAAALDk/c2I7Ac7c7f4/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B400%2528a%2529.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Heading into the Shinumo Quartzite</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Beneath crumbly slopes of the Dox Formation rest massive sandstone and quartzite cliffs of the older Shinumo Quartzite. This part of northwest Arizona was once at the margin of a continent, river and delta sediments depositing themselves at the edge of a shallow sea&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">(click <b><i><a href="/2016/02/living-dream-day-four-grand-canyon.html">here</a></i></b></span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">&nbsp;for my previous post about the Grand Canyon Supergroup).</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">I valiantly try to keep track of where we are along the river and in what rock formations. If it weren’t for my handy dandy river map and guide, I would still be wondering, ten months later.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" class="YOUTUBE-iframe-video" data-thumbnail-src="https://i.ytimg.com/vi/0yvVVYQ0S7s/0.jpg" frameborder="0" height="266" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/0yvVVYQ0S7s?feature=player_embedded" width="320"></iframe></div><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Gradually the brick–red slopes of the Hakatai Shale begin to appear at river level, beneath the cliffs of Shinumo Quartzite. We are still within the tilted beds of the Grand Canyon Supergroup, descending further into the timelessness of sedimentary rocks more than a billion years old. The scene is nothing short of mesmerizing.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-ViEeeWjsDY0/VuCtqGJoa_I/AAAAAAAALDs/CuQjRCHtQ30/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B404%2528a%2529.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="232" src="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-ViEeeWjsDY0/VuCtqGJoa_I/AAAAAAAALDs/CuQjRCHtQ30/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B404%2528a%2529.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Past the Shinumo and into the Hakatai</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-Fkt7T9PkBsY/VuCtxTqnq4I/AAAAAAAALDw/6otk0iTzVZQ/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B410%2528a%2529.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="226" src="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-Fkt7T9PkBsY/VuCtxTqnq4I/AAAAAAAALDw/6otk0iTzVZQ/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B410%2528a%2529.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">The brick red of the Hakatai Shale comes in at river level</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">I rarely have good enough timing to turn on my camera video while the guides are telling us tales. This is one of those rare occasions that I manage to catch a bit of BJ’s river narrative as he tells us about our impending ride through Hance Rapids.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" class="YOUTUBE-iframe-video" data-thumbnail-src="https://i.ytimg.com/vi/IBRLGwYWYdM/0.jpg" frameborder="0" height="266" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/IBRLGwYWYdM?feature=player_embedded" width="320"></iframe></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">And the visual hits just keep on coming. I am on geologic overload, torn between taking pictures and putting my camera down to just gaze at this extraordinary world in which I find myself. There are indeed times when I do set the camera aside, tucking it up inside the small blue bag beside me. But I feel a need to record these layers not only in my mind but also with my camera, because I know I will not be back down here any time soon.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-VCFAVOnkMYg/VuCuNfkvAeI/AAAAAAAALD0/5oHeVynUn-E/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B413%2528a%2529.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="226" src="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-VCFAVOnkMYg/VuCuNfkvAeI/AAAAAAAALD0/5oHeVynUn-E/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B413%2528a%2529.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">One of my favorite images of the entire journey - just because...</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">As I write this, ten months later, I am very glad I took so many pictures. Each time I sort through these images I get to revisit the Canyon, and live my dream once again.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-ozx-ChniYK8/VuCuaFcZitI/AAAAAAAALD8/YD7GU44-jtw/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B421%2528a%2529.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="226" src="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-ozx-ChniYK8/VuCuaFcZitI/AAAAAAAALD8/YD7GU44-jtw/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B421%2528a%2529.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Has Kim succumbed to geologic overload already?</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">We are soon passing through the Bass Limestone and Hotauta Conglomerate. Deposited by a shallow Unkar Sea starting around 1250 million years ago, they are the oldest layers in the Unkar Group.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">Sandwiched between the Bass and Hotauta sediments and the swirling metamorphic rocks beneath them is a span of missing time that encompasses nearly 500 million years.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-JR2K56_ypUE/VuCu31_nBsI/AAAAAAAALEE/yQWZ1gsjkiw/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B423%2528a%2529.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="226" src="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-JR2K56_ypUE/VuCu31_nBsI/AAAAAAAALEE/yQWZ1gsjkiw/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B423%2528a%2529.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Layered over swirling - <br />The sedimentary rocks of the Unkar Group overly even more ancient metamorphics</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Without our even noticing, the clouds have thickened, obscuring the sun and any warmth it might offer on this early May day. The wind has also picked up, and so we shiver in the chill, and hunker down just a little bit more. The canyon is narrowing. The sky has darkened, and so have the rocks around us.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" class="YOUTUBE-iframe-video" data-thumbnail-src="https://i.ytimg.com/vi/5f1p0DUoaQ4/0.jpg" frameborder="0" height="266" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/5f1p0DUoaQ4?feature=player_embedded" width="320"></iframe></div><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Near river mile 79, at Sockdolager Rapid, we say goodbye for now to the Supergroup and enter the narrow depths of Granite Gorge and its Precambrian Vishnu Schist and Zoroaster Granite. Today, we will stay within these ancient metamorphic rocks for more than 30 river miles.&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Now known as the Grand Canyon Metamorphic Suite, these 1.8 billion years old rocks&nbsp;</span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">underwent </span></i><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">unimaginable heat and pressure are the deepest, darkest, oldest and baddest rocks in Grand Canyon! I have waited many years to see these rocks, and have finally arrived within them.</span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">As the saying goes, rocks don’t <i>suffer</i> metamorphism, they enjoy it<i>.<o:p></o:p></i></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><i><br /></i></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-5dRtZ0_iZIA/VuCvocMMC-I/AAAAAAAALEQ/p-QCC47__R8/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B424%2528a%2529.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="232" src="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-5dRtZ0_iZIA/VuCvocMMC-I/AAAAAAAALEQ/p-QCC47__R8/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B424%2528a%2529.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Entering Granite Gorge</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;"><br /></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">*****************************************************<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><b><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></b></div><div class="MsoNormal"><b><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">References:</span></i></b></div><div class="MsoNormal"><b><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></b></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 106%;"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">Abbott, L., and Cook, T., 2004, <i>Hiking the Grand Canyon’s Geology</i>, The Mountaineer Books<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 106%;"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">Beus, S., 2003, Grand Canyon Supergroup, in<i> </i>Beus, S. and Morales, M., eds., <i>Grand Canyon Geology</i>, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 106%;"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">Blakey, R. and Ranney, W., 2008, <i>Ancient Landscapes of the Colorado Plateau, </i>Grand Canyon Association<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 106%;"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">Collier, M., 1980, <i>An Introduction to Grand Canyon Geology</i>, Grand Canyon Natural History Association<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 106%;"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">Stevens, L., 2013, <i>The Colorado River in Grand Canyon – River Map &amp; Guide</i>, Grand Canyon Wildlands Council<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div>Nina Fhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08965179274125274725noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3549921150562790106.post-66902712285189470772016-02-28T10:29:00.002-07:002016-02-28T10:35:32.967-07:00Living the Dream, Day 4 – The Grand Canyon Supergroup<span style="font-size: medium;">It staggers anyone’s sense of time and space. I am compelled to read about it over and over and over again after I get home from my May 2015 raft trip down the Colorado River. It takes quite a bit of “<i>Wait. What?”</i> before I can even begin to wrap my mind around its significance. <b><i>It</i></b> is the Grand Canyon Supergroup, gently tilted and isolated remnant wedges of the oldest limestones, sandstones, siltstones, mudstones, and basalts found in Grand Canyon. We are talking about sedimentary rocks that are more than a billion years old.</span> <br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-PATyTTzQncM/VtMiuUq77CI/AAAAAAAAK9w/KdCdhiSzjGQ/s1600-h/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520345%252528a%252529%25255B9%25255D.jpg" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img alt="GC Raft Trip 345(a)" height="227" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-i6UrlNzGREc/VtMivP-PcOI/AAAAAAAAK90/TDRSUUr7xtQ/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520345%252528a%252529_thumb%25255B6%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800" style="display: block; float: none; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" title="GC Raft Trip 345(a)" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Finding the Grand Canyon Supergroup (<b>click on any pic to enlargenate</b>)</td></tr></tbody></table><br /><span style="font-size: medium;"></span><br /><a name='more'></a><span style="font-size: medium;">One story ends as another begins. Around 1,300 million years ago in northwestern Arizona, lofty mountains reaching high into the sky entered the next phase of the relentless geologic cycle of deposition, uplift, and erosion. Over the next 45 million years, these igneous and metamorphic rocks (now called the Granite Gorge Metamorphic Suite, but you may know them as the Vishnu Schist and Zoroaster Granite) would be weathered, eroded and planed flat to near sea level. As the western continent subsided, new sediments were deposited on top of this planed surface. Radiometric dating and studies of paleomagnetic pole positions suggest that this new deposition started about 1,255 million years ago and lasted for 250 million years. These are the sediments of the lower, older Unkar Group of the Grand Canyon Supergroup. </span> <br /><span style="font-size: medium;"></span>&nbsp; <br /><span style="font-size: medium;">The Supergroup consists of nine different formations divided into two subgroups. From oldest to youngest, these are the Unkar Group (five formations) the Nankoweap Formation, the Chuar Group (two formations), and the Sixtymile Formation. Just downstream from the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado, the Unkar is impressively exposed at river level in eastern Grand Canyon. Tonight, we sleep within its layers.</span> <br /><span style="font-size: medium;"></span>&nbsp; <br /><i><span style="font-size: medium;">“Time, time, time, see what’s become of me…”</span></i> <br /><em><span style="font-size: small;"></span></em>&nbsp; <br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" class="YOUTUBE-iframe-video" data-thumbnail-src="https://i.ytimg.com/vi/cdKlMs11-fo/0.jpg" frameborder="0" height="266" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/cdKlMs11-fo?feature=player_embedded" width="320"></iframe></div><br /><br /><br /><b><i><span style="font-size: medium;">Collision in the East, Rifting in the West</span></i></b> <br /><strong><em><span style="font-size: small;"></span></em></strong>&nbsp; <br /><span style="font-size: medium;">Meanwhile, continents were colliding and assembling into the supercontinent Rodinia. Along a belt of landscape between Texas and New York, the Grenville orogeny was the collisional suture zone between an ancient North American eastern coastline and other unknown land masses, either continental or island arc. Along this band of colliding landscapes, mountains were thrust upward and the crust was compressed. The relentless tectonic activity that ensued over the next 200 million years was powerful enough to affect the continent as far away as the Grand Canyon region.</span> <br /><span style="font-size: small;"></span>&nbsp; <br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-FuKRzEsYPwU/VtMiwP-uDNI/AAAAAAAAK94/qqIWRANc4hA/s1600-h/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520347%252528a%252529%25255B4%25255D.jpg" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img alt="GC Raft Trip 347(a)" border="0" height="228" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-vBKDwGJ4BNQ/VtMixLsXwmI/AAAAAAAAK98/HL2bbjrpwTg/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520347%252528a%252529_thumb%25255B1%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800" style="background-image: none; border: 0px; display: block; float: none; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; padding-left: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px;" title="GC Raft Trip 347(a)" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">A tilted Supergroup block - it's all the Butte Fault's fault</td></tr></tbody></table><span style="font-size: medium;">While crustal contraction and mountain building persisted in the east, much of the rest of the continental interior was trying to rift apart. Deposited primarily in a shallow water basin at or near sea level, the Unkar Group in Grand Canyon may record a history of the contraction and extension caused by these crustal stresses of the Grenville orogeny far away in Texas.</span> <br />&nbsp; <br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-iEpkcogEwpE/VtMiybBj9pI/AAAAAAAAK-A/SjwSfxJB6_U/s1600-h/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520349%252528a%252529%25255B4%25255D.jpg" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img alt="GC Raft Trip 349(a)" border="0" height="228" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-O90wOSugPpE/VtMizdKjV_I/AAAAAAAAK-E/KCwVsxnEB5o/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520349%252528a%252529_thumb%25255B1%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800" style="background-image: none; border: 0px; display: block; float: none; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; padding-left: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px;" title="GC Raft Trip 349(a)" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">The beautiful Butte Fault - be sure to&nbsp;<b>enlargenate</b>!</td></tr></tbody></table><span style="font-size: medium;">The Grenville orogeny was the culmination of the formation of Rodinia. The supercontinent began to split apart about 750 million years ago as Australia and Antarctica pulled away, or rifted, from the western edge of North America. Extensional or normal faulting occurs during rifting or stretching of the crust, and this is what happened in the Grand Canyon region. As Australia and Antarctica (and possibly China) went bye–bye and sailed off into the western horizon, the crust of western North America stretched. Normal faults split the Grand Canyon region and offset adjacent blocks of crust nearly two vertical miles. It was the movement along these normal faults that tilted the blocks of rocks of the Grand Canyon Supergroup. Mountain blocks were tilted upward like so many toppled dominoes and separated by downdropped basins. This configuration of tilted rocks is common in areas of crustal extension and occurs today in the Basin and Range Province of Nevada.</span> <br /><span style="font-size: medium;"></span>&nbsp; <br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-9i1E76OToSA/VtMi0C4FLJI/AAAAAAAAK-I/zqbhotsNxwg/s1600-h/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520350%252528a%252529%25255B4%25255D.jpg" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img alt="GC Raft Trip 350(a)" border="0" height="228" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-KTTsoSSDkVI/VtMi02p79ZI/AAAAAAAAK-M/wkmSujMVrqo/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520350%252528a%252529_thumb%25255B1%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800" style="background-image: none; border: 0px; display: block; float: none; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; padding-left: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px;" title="GC Raft Trip 350(a)" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">The Butte Fault and tilted rocks of the Unkar Group</td></tr></tbody></table><span style="font-size: medium;">The Butte Fault system is a prominent structure in eastern Grand Canyon. Studies show that the Butte Fault is a normal fault that underwent more than 10,000 feet of west–side down displacement at the end of the Proterozoic, during the break up of Rodinia. The isolated, remnant wedges of Grand Canyon Supergroup rocks are preserved due to their existence as tilted, fault–bound blocks. The Butte Fault system undoubtedly played an important role in the tilting and preservation of these Supergroup rocks.</span> <br /><span style="font-size: medium;"><br /></span><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-xK9jMMXF7Wc/VtMi1iUh6ZI/AAAAAAAAK-Q/BVrk2gFOaDQ/s1600-h/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520354%252528a%252529%25255B4%25255D.jpg" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img alt="GC Raft Trip 354(a)" border="0" height="228" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-w5Ae-VfsXgI/VtMi2iicWBI/AAAAAAAAK-U/QF1upndELRA/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520354%252528a%252529_thumb%25255B1%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800" style="background-image: none; border: 0px; display: block; float: none; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; padding-left: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px;" title="GC Raft Trip 354(a)" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Interlayered sandstones and mudstones of the Dox Formation, <br />part of the Unkar Group&nbsp;</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-0KgkvPqTMD8/VtMi3x-CTOI/AAAAAAAAK-Y/ld1s9ovrHqo/s1600-h/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520356%252528a%252529%25255B4%25255D.jpg" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img alt="GC Raft Trip 356(a)" border="0" height="228" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-o5n3rH5A7DA/VtMi48dzViI/AAAAAAAAK-c/HBZ6C0kOhE8/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520356%252528a%252529_thumb%25255B1%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800" style="background-image: none; border: 0px; display: block; float: none; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; padding-left: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px;" title="GC Raft Trip 356(a)" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Dox Formation, somewhere around river mile 66</td></tr></tbody></table><span style="font-size: medium;">By 545 million years ago tectonism had quieted. With the exception of scattered hills of Shinumo Quartzite and Zoroaster Granite, the Basin and Range–like mountains had been weathered and eroded to a beveled flatness.</span><br /><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" class="YOUTUBE-iframe-video" data-thumbnail-src="https://i.ytimg.com/vi/ZDe_xSJz6wg/0.jpg" frameborder="0" height="266" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/ZDe_xSJz6wg?feature=player_embedded" width="320"></iframe></div><br /><span style="font-size: medium;">I spot a snazzy step fold in the Dox Formation. These interbedded sandstones and mudstones tell a story of changes in an ancient sea level around 1,100 million years ago.</span> <br />&nbsp; <br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-EXhJNqkcvn8/VtMi51iXAeI/AAAAAAAAK-g/1JjRHY9Qd70/s1600-h/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520361%252528a%252529%25255B4%25255D.jpg" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img alt="GC Raft Trip 361(a)" border="0" height="228" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-RY_eEeA-3pc/VtMi7AB1vbI/AAAAAAAAK-k/i41p4cNt7R4/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520361%252528a%252529_thumb%25255B1%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800" style="background-image: none; border: 0px; display: block; float: none; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; padding-left: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px;" title="GC Raft Trip 361(a)" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Seeing this step fold, I nearly fell out of the boat from too much excitement</td></tr></tbody></table><span style="font-size: medium;">According to my map, this prominent peak is Comanche Point.</span> <br /><span style="font-size: medium;"><br /></span><a href="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-ynaYozcyWw0/VtMi8NxlZOI/AAAAAAAAK-o/jwguXvIOdPw/s1600-h/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520363%252528a%252529%25255B4%25255D.jpg"><img alt="GC Raft Trip 363(a)" border="0" height="228" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-FNs1c_Uvj6w/VtMi89Ags_I/AAAAAAAAK-s/N1GNl_xqDsE/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520363%252528a%252529_thumb%25255B1%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800" style="background-image: none; border: 0px; display: block; float: none; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; padding-left: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px;" title="GC Raft Trip 363(a)" width="400" /></a> <br /><br /><span style="font-size: medium;">We slowly motor through the Dox…</span> <br /><span style="font-size: medium;"><br /></span><a href="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-7deDCUh5VKE/VtMi9knaBuI/AAAAAAAAK-w/3KwtWoAeRRI/s1600-h/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520364%252528a%252529%25255B4%25255D.jpg"><img alt="GC Raft Trip 364(a)" border="0" height="228" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-da3whakubhE/VtMi-sgbLfI/AAAAAAAAK-0/q4EOj0H9Qm8/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520364%252528a%252529_thumb%25255B1%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800" style="background-image: none; border: 0px; display: block; float: none; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; padding-left: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px;" title="GC Raft Trip 364(a)" width="400" /></a><br /><br /><a href="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-FXWZNAw_yL0/VtMi_ZogDzI/AAAAAAAAK-4/-v7PqpsBURQ/s1600-h/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520365%252528a%252529%25255B13%25255D.jpg"><img alt="GC Raft Trip 365(a)" border="0" height="400" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-B01rrBBGW_E/VtMi_7liM8I/AAAAAAAAK-8/BhzpPNM8Pr4/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520365%252528a%252529_thumb%25255B4%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800" style="background-image: none; border: 0px; display: block; float: none; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; padding-left: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px;" title="GC Raft Trip 365(a)" width="228" /></a><br /><br /><a href="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-05UcTJZO3AE/VtMjBAR1hTI/AAAAAAAAK_A/8v20f21fv-M/s1600-h/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520371%252528a%252529%25255B4%25255D.jpg"><img alt="GC Raft Trip 371(a)" border="0" height="228" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-UGb2Y60Te9E/VtMjCEsiZNI/AAAAAAAAK_E/UXDyuhYqIuc/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520371%252528a%252529_thumb%25255B1%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800" style="background-image: none; border: 0px; display: block; float: none; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; padding-left: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px;" title="GC Raft Trip 371(a)" width="400" /></a><br /><br /><span style="font-size: medium;">All ashore that’s going ashore! Our campsite is nestled within the East Kaibab monocline, a continuation of the Butte Fault that extends northward across the Utah border.</span> <br />&nbsp; <br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/--AUOgCBYwZM/VtMjCo8LCVI/AAAAAAAAK_I/Q0BNhMTMfKQ/s1600-h/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520372%252528a%252529%25255B4%25255D.jpg" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img alt="GC Raft Trip 372(a)" border="0" height="228" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-H5BDgWAu7aw/VtMjDbDRRsI/AAAAAAAAK_M/9RAeC3042eA/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520372%252528a%252529_thumb%25255B1%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800" style="background-image: none; border: 0px; display: block; float: none; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; padding-left: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px;" title="GC Raft Trip 372(a)" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Putting in for the night along the East Kaibab monocline, beneath <br />the Cardenas Lava and Dox Formation</td></tr></tbody></table><span style="font-size: medium;">From my journal:</span><br /><i><span style="font-size: medium;">By the time we reach camp #3 (just upstream from Tanner Rapids, about river mile 68.5), we had gone by the Sacred Hopi Salt Mines, past the Great Unconformity, and&nbsp;traveled&nbsp;into the&nbsp;Dox Formation of Precambrian age. The wind is fierce but the rain has stopped and the sky is clearing. I am exhausted from the wind and rain and so take a long time setting up my tent. Kris’s tent nearly blows away so I give her a couple of extra stakes. She also guys it down with some rocks.</span></i> <br /><i><span style="font-size: medium;">Dinner is Mexican and hot tea. Others stay up around a warm campfire but Kris and I retire to our tents at dark. The wind is diminished. I can hear the constant roar of nearby Tanner Rapids — tonight’s lullaby.</span></i> <br /><i><span style="font-size: medium;">Tomorrow promises to be a non–stop, wild rapids ride, one after another and BIG! Apparently, we haven’t seen anything yet.</span></i> <br /><i><span style="font-size: medium;"><br /></span></i><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-P7CUeBW2Xzk/VtMjEnivuLI/AAAAAAAAK_Q/Kx2kzc1pmp8/s1600-h/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520373%252528a%252529%25255B4%25255D.jpg" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img alt="GC Raft Trip 373(a)" border="0" height="228" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-3TG1dej0ygM/VtMjFp0TM3I/AAAAAAAAK_U/U0UXuufU9Kw/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520373%252528a%252529_thumb%25255B1%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800" style="background-image: none; border: 0px; display: block; float: none; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; padding-left: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px;" title="GC Raft Trip 373(a)" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Nest for the night</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-BXHzQw3mW-0/VtMjGVO3mUI/AAAAAAAAK_Y/f0SfAHuc-Qk/s1600-h/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520374%252528a%252529%25255B4%25255D.jpg" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img alt="GC Raft Trip 374(a)" border="0" height="228" src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-dy81qNEO6-o/VtMjHLHpCPI/AAAAAAAAK_c/DEmJdWceFUg/GC%252520Raft%252520Trip%252520374%252528a%252529_thumb%25255B1%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800" style="background-image: none; border: 0px; display: block; float: none; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; padding-left: 0px; padding-right: 0px; padding-top: 0px;" title="GC Raft Trip 374(a)" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">The brownish Cardenas Lava only outcrops in eastern Grand Canyon</td></tr></tbody></table><br /><span style="font-size: medium;">Spectacular doesn’t even begin to describe this place.</span><br /><span style="font-size: medium;"><br /></span><br /><div style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-size: medium;">**********************************</span></div><span style="font-size: medium;"><i><br /></i></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><i><b>References:</b></i></span><br /><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">Beus, S., 2003, Grand Canyon Supergroup, in<i> </i>Beus, S. and Morales, M., eds., <i>Grand Canyon Geology</i>, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">Blakey, R. and Ranney, W., 2008, <i>Ancient Landscapes of the Colorado Plateau, </i>Grand Canyon Association<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">Collier, M., 1980, <i>An Introduction to Grand Canyon Geology</i>, Grand Canyon Natural History Association<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">Stevens, L., 2013, <i>The Colorado River in Grand Canyon – River Map &amp; Guide</i>, Grand Canyon Wildlands Council<o:p></o:p></span></div><br /><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">And, last but not least, Simon &amp; Garfunkel, 1966, <i>A Hazy Shade of Winter</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></div><span style="font-size: medium;"><br /></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><br /></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><br /></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><br /></span><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />Nina Fhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08965179274125274725noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3549921150562790106.post-76327438991050386672016-01-29T19:54:00.001-07:002016-01-30T21:31:47.775-07:00Living the Dream, Day 4 – A Last Look at the Tapeats<div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">We depart the Little Colorado&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">in mid-afternoon</span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">of an early May day</span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">, continuing on Day Four of our excellent&nbsp;Colorado River rafting adventure. The sky that earlier teased us with a&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">warm&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">patchy blue has turned again to cold gray. The sun is a&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">vague,&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">hazy</span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">blob</span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">&nbsp;behind the thickening clouds. We huddle&nbsp;beneath blue tarps in a futile attempt to stay warm and dry. The Tapeats Sandstone is about to disappear up, up, and away from the water’s edge.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">The flattened, fractured layers of this formation are too captivating to let go so soon, though. With that in mind, here are a few still images and videos to consider&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">for now</span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">, until the Tapeats reappears further downstream in a few days. Enjoy!</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-sz8V4kpCJY0/VqwVnkHgHoI/AAAAAAAAK6o/ft2f7J89NVM/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B309.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-sz8V4kpCJY0/VqwVnkHgHoI/AAAAAAAAK6o/ft2f7J89NVM/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B309.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Motoring through the Tapeats (<b>click on any pic to enlargenate</b>)</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;"></span></div><a name='more'></a><br /><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" class="YOUTUBE-iframe-video" data-thumbnail-src="https://i.ytimg.com/vi/fsnguhvHYQQ/0.jpg" frameborder="0" height="266" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/fsnguhvHYQQ?feature=player_embedded" width="320"></iframe></div><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">The laminated nature of the Tapeats at river level belies its appearance from up on the rim. Up there, the Tapeats give the impression of a massive, coherent ribbon of impenetrable sandstone. Down here, it looks like&nbsp;a huge pastrami sandwich that someone sat on and squished.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">You would look like a squished sandwich, too, if you had been covered up by tens of thousands of feet of sediment for hundreds of millions of years.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-fHBnnnkltX0/VqwYQXnoKOI/AAAAAAAAK60/2qLiDKhY7PA/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B311.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-fHBnnnkltX0/VqwYQXnoKOI/AAAAAAAAK60/2qLiDKhY7PA/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B311.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Tapeats Sandstone at river level</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">The white material oozing out from the walls of the Tapeats are salt deposits. This is a traditional Hopi salt mine. Since the area is sacred to the Hopi, our rafts are not allowed to stop and investigate.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"></div><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-CtXWsvzxo9M/VqwZsmXA_4I/AAAAAAAAK7E/cVgXlyppDZA/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B313.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-CtXWsvzxo9M/VqwZsmXA_4I/AAAAAAAAK7E/cVgXlyppDZA/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B313.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Hopi salt mines</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-iJhKwERXexc/VqwZ2Ld_-AI/AAAAAAAAK7M/o_-y-18_d4Q/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B314.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-iJhKwERXexc/VqwZ2Ld_-AI/AAAAAAAAK7M/o_-y-18_d4Q/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B314.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: left;"><br /></td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" class="YOUTUBE-iframe-video" data-thumbnail-src="https://i.ytimg.com/vi/o3n6rbNaKTo/0.jpg" frameborder="0" height="266" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/o3n6rbNaKTo?feature=player_embedded" width="320"></iframe></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-DGfhKdeC1I8/Vqwaw0WvjxI/AAAAAAAAK7U/fkj0ZtqNZPI/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B318.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-DGfhKdeC1I8/Vqwaw0WvjxI/AAAAAAAAK7U/fkj0ZtqNZPI/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B318.JPG" width="400" /></a></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">The salt oozes from within the sandstone layers for quite a distance.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-_9Yhh-FFJck/Vqwa5UIeiGI/AAAAAAAAK7c/R1-UMSC3Xnw/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B324.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-_9Yhh-FFJck/Vqwa5UIeiGI/AAAAAAAAK7c/R1-UMSC3Xnw/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B324.JPG" width="400" /></a></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-YDw0ufsF91A/VqwbimDIANI/AAAAAAAAK7k/HXTYW7ZytkM/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B326.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-YDw0ufsF91A/VqwbimDIANI/AAAAAAAAK7k/HXTYW7ZytkM/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B326.JPG" width="400" /></a></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-TeOBF6dw94w/VqwbrfPkh0I/AAAAAAAAK7s/RKVvh_exvRI/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B333.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-TeOBF6dw94w/VqwbrfPkh0I/AAAAAAAAK7s/RKVvh_exvRI/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B333.JPG" width="400" /></a></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">We are always on the lookout for wildlife, particularly bighorn sheep, but do not see any along this stretch of beach.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-wEznWo_2nXM/VqwcX1rHt3I/AAAAAAAAK74/b18b0FjDusM/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B338.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-wEznWo_2nXM/VqwcX1rHt3I/AAAAAAAAK74/b18b0FjDusM/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B338.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">No sheep here.</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">A small flotilla of rafts from another party has found its nest for the night. We continue downstream, to our own campsite among the rocks.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-RSE04UOt_Gg/Vqwc9RnCVVI/AAAAAAAAK8A/sEDRIvUKTZ8/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B341.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-RSE04UOt_Gg/Vqwc9RnCVVI/AAAAAAAAK8A/sEDRIvUKTZ8/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B341.JPG" width="400" /></a></div><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Around a few short river bends the scene changes dramatically. We are entering the biggest and the baddest of Grand Canyon sedimentary stratigraphy – the Grand Canyon Supergroup. John Wesley Powell’s Great Unconformity is around here somewhere, too.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-6O3Vg4M8LBk/VqwdV8UsmJI/AAAAAAAAK8I/1nVFfoIhW60/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B343.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-6O3Vg4M8LBk/VqwdV8UsmJI/AAAAAAAAK8I/1nVFfoIhW60/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B343.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">The Grand Canyon Supergroup lurks in the distance</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div>Nina Fhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08965179274125274725noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3549921150562790106.post-72029077657554956212016-01-07T18:21:00.000-07:002016-01-07T23:37:58.340-07:00Living the Dream, Day 4 – Tapeats Sandstone & The Little Colorado<div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Gray clouds linger in the sky like battered marshmallows as we motor our way through river mile 60 on the Colorado River. My feet are soggy raisins inside my wet neoprene booties and rubber river shoes. My nose drips like a sunburnt popsicle in July. It has been raining intermittently sideways for the past ten river miles and my waterproof gear seems to have sprung a few leaks. My core is a shuddering block of slush. As instructed by our flip-flop-wearing guides, I am wearing my bathing suit under multiple layers of thermal wear. Now they tell us it is time to go swimming.&nbsp; Really? The <i>last</i> thing I want to do is plunge my hypothermia-verging self into that frigid river. Deep inside my cold-addled brain I imagine a toasty sauna or (ooohh!) hot spring materializing somewhere nearby.<o:p></o:p></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-URF1kGVY6HQ/Vo71jM5_DCI/AAAAAAAAK4s/7Sx41yazVFo/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B272.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-URF1kGVY6HQ/Vo71jM5_DCI/AAAAAAAAK4s/7Sx41yazVFo/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B272.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">The Tapeats Sandstone at river level (<b>click on any pic to enlargenate</b>)</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"></span></div><a name='more'></a><br /><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Good luck with that, eh? This isn’t Yellowstone, after all. It is early May in Grand Canyon with not a hot spring or sauna in sight. Fortunately, my attention is diverted from the cold. The 540-million-year-old Tapeats Sandstone has begun to poke its head above the water line.&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span><span style="font-family: Cambria, serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">An interesting geologic relationship exists between the layers of the Tonto Group through which we have recently descended – first the Muav, then the Bright Angel, and now the Tapeats. Together these three interrelated formations comprise the classic sequence of sandstones, shales, and limestones, revealing a textbook example of the cycle of transgression, or advance, of a shallow sea across an ancient continent.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Cambria, serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Cambria, serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><b><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">How do we know this stuff?<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></div><div class="MsoNormal"><b><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></b></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Hundreds of millions of years prior to deposition of the Tonto Group sequence of sediments, Precambrian mountains in the area of our future Grand Canyon had been uplifted to heights rivaling the Andes, only to bevel down to their metamorphic crystalline roots by the forces of weathering, erosion, and gravity. Today, we know these roots as the metamorphic schists and gneisses of Granite Gorge, the deepest part of the Canyon.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Around 540 million years ago during Early Cambrian times, these roots lay exposed on the surface. They had weathered, eroded, and gravitated into a barren flatness broken only by remnant blocks of crystalline basement or other uplifted blocks of the Grand Canyon Supergroup (<i>Wait.</i> <i>What?</i> <i>Who said anything about a Supergroup?</i>). This stable core of the North America continent, or <i>craton</i>, lay above sea level. There is no evidence of vegetation that would have slowed erosion. It would be millions of years before trees, ferns, and flowering plants appear on the scene. It was upon this barren, beveled landscape that the Sauk marine transgression moved in from the west, a shallow sea encroaching onto the continent from the deeper continental shelf and slopes offshore.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Cambria, serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">Geology is full of concepts and models indicating a particular environment. One of these is called the </span><i style="font-family: Cambria, serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">facies </i><span style="font-family: Cambria, serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">model, which states that as we move farther away from land and deeper into a body of water, sediments go from coarse to fine, larger to smaller. The coarsest-grained sediments such as sandstones are deposited in a nearshore environment along the beach or strandline, while finer-grained sediments such as mud are deposited a bit farther offshore. Farthest from land are the finest-grained sediments, which are the carbonates, or limestones. It is significant that, during a transgression or advance of the sea across the continent, these sediment layers also migrate inland.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-CN8BRvJbzl0/Vo72ThbtRGI/AAAAAAAAK40/unWcPxUnxQc/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B273.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-CN8BRvJbzl0/Vo72ThbtRGI/AAAAAAAAK40/unWcPxUnxQc/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B273.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Tapeats Sandstone, the lowest layer in the Tonto Group, is at water level</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Cambria, serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">Within the Tonto Group, the earliest (lowest and oldest) Tapeats Sandstone represents shoreline sediments of the Sauk Sea, deposited along the western margin of the beveled craton. Over time, as the sea slowly transgressed eastward across the continent and became deeper over the Grand Canyon region, the strandline of the Tapeats also migrated eastward. Deeper water, finer-grained muds of the Bright Angel Shale were deposited on top of these older sandstones. As the sea continued its transgression across the continent, the water eventually became deep enough for Muav Limestone carbonates to be deposited above the Bright Angel Shale.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><b><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Thirty million years<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></div><div class="MsoNormal"><b><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></b></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">So that is how we know “this stuff,” this fascinating story told by the rocks of the Tonto Group. Sandstone, shale, limestone. Tapeats Sandstone, Bright Angel Shale, Muav Limestone. Older beneath younger. A textbook transgressive sequence.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">There is one more thing to consider with these rocks. They are <i>time transgressive</i>. The same formation can be a different age, depending on when and where it was deposited. As the Sauk sea moved eastward through time, so did its sediments. Sands, muds, and carbonates in eastern Grand Canyon would have been laid down at a later time than those in western Grand Canyon. The Tapeats, Bright Angel, and Muav would each look similar from one location to the next, but their ages would differ significantly the farther east they go.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">This cycle did not happen overnight. It took the Cambrian sea up to 30 million years to finish what it had started, to inch its way back and forth over what would one day become Arizona. The contacts, the boundaries, are not often clear, but the outline is there.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-C78VmQPapeI/Vo760Ev95QI/AAAAAAAAK5A/H9Yshd_z_S0/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B274.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-C78VmQPapeI/Vo760Ev95QI/AAAAAAAAK5A/H9Yshd_z_S0/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B274.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Stop for a spell at the Little &nbsp;Colorado</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><div class="MsoNormal"><b><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Anyone for a swim?<o:p></o:p></span></i></b></div><div class="MsoNormal"><b><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></b></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">The Little Colorado joins the Colorado River on top of the Tapeats Sandstone. The guides bump our boats into the bank and tie down just upstream of the confluence. We disembark onto the muddy shore, thrashing through the underbrush in the drizzly rain. I huddle briefly with some of my compatriots beneath a sandstone ledge. When I notice that my camera is not slung around my neck I make a mad dash back to the boat to get it, and soon realize that the rain has stopped and that the sun is trying to break through the clouds.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-9B_JjpOobhw/Vo770WReilI/AAAAAAAAK5I/YeP8v0Ttbxc/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B275.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-9B_JjpOobhw/Vo770WReilI/AAAAAAAAK5I/YeP8v0Ttbxc/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B275.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">The Little Colorado River</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Cambria, serif;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">The Little Colorado is a vivid swath of turquoise reflecting suspended particles of calcium carbonate. It puts me in mind of the steaming terraces of Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone </span></span><span style="font-family: Cambria, serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">except&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family: Cambria, serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">for the absence of steam. I hope for warm but know better. I dip my finger into the blue &nbsp;</span><span style="font-family: Cambria, serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">milkiness&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family: Cambria, serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">and am slightly disappointed. This water is stone cold.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Well, duh.</span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-MlHb28vyNsc/Vo78QGtmjiI/AAAAAAAAK5Y/QIgKG3X_UNc/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B279.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-MlHb28vyNsc/Vo78QGtmjiI/AAAAAAAAK5Y/QIgKG3X_UNc/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B279.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">The Little Colorado cuts through the Tapeats Sandstone</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-C5e3DkOvomU/Vo78KQ6o7SI/AAAAAAAAK5U/BhbWSyw35no/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B278.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-C5e3DkOvomU/Vo78KQ6o7SI/AAAAAAAAK5U/BhbWSyw35no/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B278.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">River buddies</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-BClWI0DS30E/Vo78WoqL2KI/AAAAAAAAK5g/56x--ZWFOhE/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B282.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-BClWI0DS30E/Vo78WoqL2KI/AAAAAAAAK5g/56x--ZWFOhE/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B282.JPG" width="400" /></a></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">There is no hurry so I take my time. It’s nice to get out of the boat and go for a walkabout. Random rays of sunshine do their best to fend off the chill. After a while I convince myself that I am sort of warm. Actually, it is so beautiful alongside the river that I forget I was ever uncomfortable.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" class="YOUTUBE-iframe-video" data-thumbnail-src="https://i.ytimg.com/vi/yy11osIao0o/0.jpg" frameborder="0" height="266" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/yy11osIao0o?feature=player_embedded" width="320"></iframe></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Seeking respite from the crowd of rowdy rafters, I walk along the sandstone ledges and have a pleasant conversation with the voices in my head.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-vDmWHE08_Gc/Vo8Cl3PENfI/AAAAAAAAK5w/02QjlnKMFn8/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B288.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-vDmWHE08_Gc/Vo8Cl3PENfI/AAAAAAAAK5w/02QjlnKMFn8/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B288.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Feet photo!</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: Cambria, serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">Does anyone else notice there is no elevation or other identifying label on this benchmark?</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-VPtcBgp2yvY/Vo8CzM7089I/AAAAAAAAK54/3HrZ-iAtjt8/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B287.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="182" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-VPtcBgp2yvY/Vo8CzM7089I/AAAAAAAAK54/3HrZ-iAtjt8/s320/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B287.JPG" width="320" /></a></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;">It is no wonder the guides bring us here.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/--iu136TKLHA/Vo8C_JkzzWI/AAAAAAAAK6A/Sk0P3OE39-U/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B296.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/--iu136TKLHA/Vo8C_JkzzWI/AAAAAAAAK6A/Sk0P3OE39-U/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B296.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">View downstream from the riffles on the Little Colorado</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">We reach the spot where the bathing suits make their appearance. The idea is to put your life jacket on upside down, around your waist, and float down the riffles feet first. Let’s be honest here – it looks like you are wearing a gigantic orange diaper. The idea of going full-body into that cold water is less appealing than a root canal for some of us. The rest fearlessly take the plunge, including river buddy Kris. She is last down the chute in this video:<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" class="YOUTUBE-iframe-video" data-thumbnail-src="https://i.ytimg.com/vi/c7eCAUnUrrY/0.jpg" frameborder="0" height="266" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/c7eCAUnUrrY?feature=player_embedded" width="320"></iframe></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Kris and I chat quietly as we wander slowly back to the boats, admiring the turquoise glow of the Little Colorado. The wind has picked up again, and the clouds have moved back in to lend a gray cast to the sky. It doesn’t really matter, though. We both feel extraordinarily lucky to be in this place.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-YB5h0Q420_c/Vo8DpHKrmeI/AAAAAAAAK6I/5FcrIaoV7i8/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B295.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-YB5h0Q420_c/Vo8DpHKrmeI/AAAAAAAAK6I/5FcrIaoV7i8/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B295.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Kris takes her time on the Tapeats</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-BL6PV1rBMjI/Vo8DvC4-YcI/AAAAAAAAK6Q/S_BcSWmlJeg/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B301.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="400" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-BL6PV1rBMjI/Vo8DvC4-YcI/AAAAAAAAK6Q/S_BcSWmlJeg/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B301.JPG" width="227" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Beamer's cabin</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">We reach the rafts, scramble on, and hunker down against the chilly wind. The guides start the motors, back us up into the channel, and point the rigs downstream once again. We have not seen the end of the Tapeats at river level, however. It will show up again later in the trip. For now, though, just around a few river bends and rapids, rocks of the Grand Canyon Supergroup and The Great Unconformity await our arrival.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-aa8jLPMITR8/Vo8D-rhP5zI/AAAAAAAAK6Y/wS1qpZRELgU/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B303.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="222" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-aa8jLPMITR8/Vo8D-rhP5zI/AAAAAAAAK6Y/wS1qpZRELgU/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B303.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">A confluence of two rivers&nbsp;</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">*******************************************</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><b><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;">References:</span></i></b></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Abbott, L., and Cook, T., 2004, <i>Hiking the Grand Canyon’s Geology</i>, The Mountaineer Books</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Blakey, R. and Ranney, W., 2008, <i>Ancient Landscapes of the Colorado Plateau, </i>Grand Canyon Association<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Collier, M., 1980, <i>An Introduction to Grand Canyon Geology</i>, Grand Canyon Natural History Association<o:p></o:p></span><br /><span style="font-family: Cambria, serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 17.12px;">Middleton, L.T. and Elliott, D.K.,&nbsp;</span><i style="font-family: Cambria, serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 17.12px;">Tonto Group</i><span style="font-family: Cambria, serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 17.12px;">, in</span><i style="font-family: Cambria, serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 17.12px;">&nbsp;</i><span style="font-family: Cambria, serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 17.12px;">Beus, S. and Morales, M., eds., Grand Canyon Geology, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Stevens, L., 2013, <i>The Colorado River in Grand Canyon – River Map &amp; Guide</i>, Grand Canyon Wildlands Council<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Wicander, R., and Monroe, J., 2004, <i>Historical Geology</i>, 4<sup>th</sup> ed., Thomson Brooks/Cole<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /><o:p></o:p></span></div>Nina Fhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08965179274125274725noreply@blogger.com2tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3549921150562790106.post-80668555437145188782015-12-31T18:17:00.001-07:002015-12-31T18:17:51.529-07:00Living the Dream, Day 4 - Temple Butte to Tapeats<span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;">ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZip! On hands and knees I crawl, slowly and deliberately, out of my tent, bones creaking and muscles aching. Why on Earth do I do this? Why do I subject myself to this torture, sleeping atop a clammy boat mattress on the cold, hard ground with a measly six-inch square of two-inch foam sponge as a pillow?</span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;">Oh wait, I know why. Because I get to wake up to this:</span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-3uzpW9UIr2A/VoW9kct3NHI/AAAAAAAAK2A/hMznECbHw44/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B224.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-3uzpW9UIr2A/VoW9kct3NHI/AAAAAAAAK2A/hMznECbHw44/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B224.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">The sun rises on the Redwall Limestone (<b>click on any pic to enlargenate</b>)</td></tr></tbody></table><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"></span><br /><a name='more'></a><br /><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">I have brought a journal on this trip of a lifetime, in May 2015, down the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, and I actually write in it:<o:p></o:p></span></div><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">“Do not sleep well. Too much wine last night and stayed up late talking around the campfire. Still, get up just past dawn, and break my little camp in a morning routine of coffee, breakfast, and teeth brushing at the river. Sunlight reflection off the Redwall in the early morning light is mesmerizing, so is first pic of the day.”<o:p></o:p></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Nn6W3BTqpoI/VoW-CDtE7cI/AAAAAAAAK2I/v2uZAroVG5U/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B225.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Nn6W3BTqpoI/VoW-CDtE7cI/AAAAAAAAK2I/v2uZAroVG5U/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B225.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">My early May sunrise at the mouth of Saddle Canyon</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">The hike that had been postponed yesterday is on the agenda for this morning, three miles round trip, up Saddle Canyon to a waterfall. I lace my boots and get ready to rumble up the trail. The guides all wear flip flops. I shake the sand out of my ears and head out in search of ancient river channels embedded within these layered rocks.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-SD8Z_X-MisI/VoW-gJLmwjI/AAAAAAAAK2Q/zu9ibfgNYXs/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B233.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-SD8Z_X-MisI/VoW-gJLmwjI/AAAAAAAAK2Q/zu9ibfgNYXs/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B233.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Saddle Canyon trail is on the right</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-EGRqo3qjF2c/VoW-mxf0TuI/AAAAAAAAK2Y/LmGTAKeq15I/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B231.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-EGRqo3qjF2c/VoW-mxf0TuI/AAAAAAAAK2Y/LmGTAKeq15I/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B231.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Old friends, sharing the trip of a lifetime</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;">“<i>The trail contours up the talus slope, 400’ elevation gain, then levels out, past wild grape, pink monkeyflower, yellow columbine, and native tobacco. As we level out, Jay (one of the flip-flopped guides) points out a Devonian river channel in the opposite wall of the canyon, just below the Redwall.”</i></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><i><br /></i></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-cXfufbevUQo/VoW-4Vt37oI/AAAAAAAAK2g/ThQ5QU_AKxg/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B227.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-cXfufbevUQo/VoW-4Vt37oI/AAAAAAAAK2g/ThQ5QU_AKxg/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B227.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Jay points out something on the wall, and I know what it must be.</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><i><br /></i></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-QaJIytbW6Zg/VoW_CBNDmcI/AAAAAAAAK2o/qp3SVajv3MA/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B229.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-QaJIytbW6Zg/VoW_CBNDmcI/AAAAAAAAK2o/qp3SVajv3MA/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B229.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Devonian river channel nestled within the base of the Redwall</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-otSsumzADWA/VoW_Mc0dBfI/AAAAAAAAK2w/recBwfqHNZ0/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B228.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="230" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-otSsumzADWA/VoW_Mc0dBfI/AAAAAAAAK2w/recBwfqHNZ0/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B228.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Where? What are we looking at? Oh, wow!</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><i><br /></i></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-DcE_EdfY0Uw/VoW_Uw0H0vI/AAAAAAAAK24/EXE3mbvpvBo/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B230.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-DcE_EdfY0Uw/VoW_Uw0H0vI/AAAAAAAAK24/EXE3mbvpvBo/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B230.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">It's right there!</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;">“Reaching the waterfall involves removing my boots and replacing them with water shoes (courtesy of my sister), wading a narrow shallow stream, and then maneuvering up a narrow, water-slick crevasse. The water drips down moss-covered limestone; we linger in the shade on ledges of chert. Then we do it all in reverse – I hold on to Jay’s arm while backing down the crevasse, to drop first a right foot then left, then both on that step, bend knees, grab hold of a rock knob hidden under a ledge, left then right, then plop down as gracefully as possible onto the water and moss-slickened limestone – all done backwards! We mosey on down the slope to the boats, from the base of the Redwall, past monkeyflower and wild grape and slices of ancient river channels of the Temple Butte Formation.”</span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></i></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-FTH1Qg-T2d8/VoXAik79C_I/AAAAAAAAK3E/MvLNq7-KxG0/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B234.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-FTH1Qg-T2d8/VoXAik79C_I/AAAAAAAAK3E/MvLNq7-KxG0/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B234.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Below the Redwall</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">“Lunch is at the boats. We had packed most of our stuff before the hike and just have blue bags left, for a change of clothes. We are told that our bathing suits will come in handy at the Little Colorado later today.”<o:p></o:p></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-NEo1h0yNFvU/VoXA6WQcxmI/AAAAAAAAK3M/d-xwqB8acLs/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B237.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-NEo1h0yNFvU/VoXA6WQcxmI/AAAAAAAAK3M/d-xwqB8acLs/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B237.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Tying down the rigs</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;">Kris considers a beached flotilla of dories that seems to have appeared from nowhere and have no apparent people attached to them. I wonder if this is the same size boat that John Wesley Powell used on his Colorado River expeditions starting back in 1869. It seems unlikely, considering all the food, supplies and scientific instruments he carried (and eventually lost to the rapids). I don’t know for sure, though, and do not think to ask a guide.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-JjipYtOR2pE/VoXBGPs8jxI/AAAAAAAAK3U/ORUUPCQ7ow4/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B238.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-JjipYtOR2pE/VoXBGPs8jxI/AAAAAAAAK3U/ORUUPCQ7ow4/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B238.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Kris considers possibilities</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-C3GrZ0TsD1U/VoXBM1Q8NFI/AAAAAAAAK3c/pdSKJkL_i7g/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B239.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-C3GrZ0TsD1U/VoXBM1Q8NFI/AAAAAAAAK3c/pdSKJkL_i7g/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B239.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">One of the dories</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">“Then the wind really picks up, and never lets up even after we reach our third night’s campsite. It is relentless – I do not see how oar and paddle boats travel in such wind. We motor into and down the dolomites, limestones, and shales of the Tonto Group in the cold wind and intermittent rain. It is not the most comfortable of conditions.”<o:p></o:p></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-5E95CMyTA2Y/VoXBibcboRI/AAAAAAAAK3k/7g5vSTxr4Zo/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B247.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-5E95CMyTA2Y/VoXBibcboRI/AAAAAAAAK3k/7g5vSTxr4Zo/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B247.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Nankoweap Canyon and Rapids&nbsp;</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">“We go past Nankoweap Canyon in the rain, and peer at distant granaries (and a steep access trail up the slope) built into the side of the cliff.”<o:p></o:p></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-H6ntCKqsYKc/VoXCTQyaJEI/AAAAAAAAK3s/F2qmeVYYYrU/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B248.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-H6ntCKqsYKc/VoXCTQyaJEI/AAAAAAAAK3s/F2qmeVYYYrU/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B248.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">A rainy view of the granaries at Nankoweap</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></i></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-xDEMJ7hY5wk/VoXCcOq9XrI/AAAAAAAAK30/GSFueP0_6BA/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B244.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-xDEMJ7hY5wk/VoXCcOq9XrI/AAAAAAAAK30/GSFueP0_6BA/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B244.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Granaries perched in the cliffs</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-no-proof: yes;">The sky is a fuzzy puzzle of constantly shifting clouds, alternately obscuring the sun overhead then teasing us with patches of blue just beyond the horizon of jagged cliffs. Brrrrr!!! Everyone is huddled together on the boat mattresses, thick with thermal layers and rain gear, but still wet from the rain and chilled from the wind. A plastic tarp does second duty as a lap blanket for those shivering souls in the front of the boat. My feet are freezing in their neoprene socks.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-no-proof: yes;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/--qpaFMOYkuw/VoXEm8YdYrI/AAAAAAAAK4A/JWFYVZmmwZk/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B256.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/--qpaFMOYkuw/VoXEm8YdYrI/AAAAAAAAK4A/JWFYVZmmwZk/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B256.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">J-rig riders, all bundled up - Kris is smiling on the right</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;">According to my river map and guide, the river has been cutting down through the sloping Bright Angel Shale since shortly after leaving Saddle Canyon. It is at river level at Nankoweap Canyon. Somewhere around Kwagunt Rapid and river mile 56, the Bright Angel Shale and other layers of shallow marine muds become more apparent as I endeavor to figure out the stratigraphy.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-NLA-i05rWxU/VoXFXjNoObI/AAAAAAAAK4I/_tisRgfYjOU/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B263.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-NLA-i05rWxU/VoXFXjNoObI/AAAAAAAAK4I/_tisRgfYjOU/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B263.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Bright Angel Shale shines at river level</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-Gtm_e54voUI/VoXFe_kgu3I/AAAAAAAAK4Q/k8hvTOVbuTE/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B269.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-Gtm_e54voUI/VoXFe_kgu3I/AAAAAAAAK4Q/k8hvTOVbuTE/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B269.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">BJ expounds while in his Rasta disguise</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;">However, the Bright Angel Shale and its muddy marine relatives slowly retreat from river level. As the oldest, earliest layer of the Tonto Group, the 540-million year old Tapeats Sandstone quietly announces its arrival, and will soon have its own unique story to tell.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-rHiDYGXHbTE/VoXGituTZEI/AAAAAAAAK4c/chhR1VbzUAY/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B270.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="183" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-rHiDYGXHbTE/VoXGituTZEI/AAAAAAAAK4c/chhR1VbzUAY/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B270.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">The Tapeats Sandstone, coming in at river level</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">*******************************************</span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: left;"><span style="font-family: Cambria, serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;"><b>References:</b></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Stevens, L., 2013, <i>The Colorado River in Grand Canyon – River Map &amp; Guide</i>, Grand Canyon Wildlands Council<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: left;"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: left;"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></div>Nina Fhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08965179274125274725noreply@blogger.com2tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3549921150562790106.post-25572062965564366452015-12-12T09:41:00.001-07:002015-12-12T10:13:18.484-07:00Living the Dream, Day 3 – Whither the Devonian?<div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">It is inevitable, along this downstream Grand Canyon journey. The rock layers we have come to know so intimately must now retreat, above and beyond the water level of the Colorado River. They now graciously extend the limelight to newer (at least to our eyes) yet older layers. We have spent the morning hours enveloped within the sheer walls of the Redwall Limestone, getting to know its Mooney Falls and Thunder Springs members, Vasey’s Paradise, Redwall Cavern, the Bridge of Sighs. Our j-rigs are transporting us down canyon and down section, into deeper geologic time.</span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-CF96qhta1tE/VmwzwuzSBII/AAAAAAAAKyU/WtcmdFEUwbY/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B161.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="228" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-CF96qhta1tE/VmwzwuzSBII/AAAAAAAAKyU/WtcmdFEUwbY/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B161.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">The Redwall recedes from river level (<b>click on any pic to enlargenate</b>)</td></tr></tbody></table><a name='more'></a><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">Whenever I stand upon the rim of the Canyon and peer down into its infinity, the Redwall seems so thick, so solid, so eternal. Up close, however, these crumbling walls appear weathered and ephemeral, carbonates dissolving into oblivion by trickles of groundwater. The Redwall Limestone never really surrenders its prominence, though, even as it shifts the limelight to the rocks beneath it. On this adventure I always look for it. Its distinctive walls are a reference point that the eye seeks. Where is it? Where am I?&nbsp;</span><br /><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">Is it lunch time yet?</span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-lfIVmch8EcY/Vmw0grmI30I/AAAAAAAAKyc/prHM6RFjz44/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B163.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-lfIVmch8EcY/Vmw0grmI30I/AAAAAAAAKyc/prHM6RFjz44/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B163.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">36 Mile Rapid. I think.</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">Redwall or not, I think we are heading into the jaws of 36-Mile Rapid. I stop daydreaming about rocks and food for a moment, unravel my dry bag, and whip out my camera. This is a short clip –&nbsp; my goal here as a promising videographer is to stay inside the boat.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" class="YOUTUBE-iframe-video" data-thumbnail-src="https://i.ytimg.com/vi/ZHIfvbd4xNA/0.jpg" frameborder="0" height="266" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/ZHIfvbd4xNA?feature=player_embedded" width="320"></iframe></div><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">Well, that was a ton of fun! Beyonce thought so, too.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-AdjwVffUEAU/Vmw1A0nvo9I/AAAAAAAAKyk/_-5fLMkV3hI/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B166.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="194" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-AdjwVffUEAU/Vmw1A0nvo9I/AAAAAAAAKyk/_-5fLMkV3hI/s320/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B166.JPG" width="320" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Beyonce having the time of her life</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">These rocks look like limestones, and indeed they are. According to my handy dandy River Map &amp; Guide, this is the Muav Limestone of Middle Cambrian age, 530 million years old and the upper, youngest formation of the Tonto Group.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-dpobtBBxCCE/Vmw1drXa1II/AAAAAAAAKys/UnuJ1OwTlmQ/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B169.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="400" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-dpobtBBxCCE/Vmw1drXa1II/AAAAAAAAKys/UnuJ1OwTlmQ/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B169.JPG" width="227" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Limestone everywhere</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;">Wait a sec…</span></i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"> </span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">Have I missed something? Have I not been paying enough attention? There should be at least one other rock formation below the Redwall. Even the standard mnemonic for remembering the stratigraphy of Grand Canyon omits it:<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; margin-bottom: 0in;"><b><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">Know<o:p></o:p></span></b></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; margin-bottom: 0in;"><b><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">The<o:p></o:p></span></b></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; margin-bottom: 0in;"><b><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">Canyon’s<o:p></o:p></span></b></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; margin-bottom: 0in;"><b><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">History,<o:p></o:p></span></b></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; margin-bottom: 0in;"><b><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">Study<o:p></o:p></span></b></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; margin-bottom: 0in;"><b><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">Rocks<o:p></o:p></span></b></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; margin-bottom: 0in;"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">(<i>Hey!!! Something is missing here! Whither the Devonian???</i>)<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; margin-bottom: 0in;"><b><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">Made<o:p></o:p></span></b></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; margin-bottom: 0in;"><b><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">By<o:p></o:p></span></b></div><div class="MsoNormal"></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; margin-bottom: 0in;"><b><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">Time.<o:p></o:p></span></b></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; margin-bottom: 0in;"><b><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></b></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">Where is the Devonian? Where are the famous channel deposits of its Temple Butte Formation? Peering precariously over and past my boat-mate’s hatted heads, I kneel and reposition a couple of random appendages as I scan the canyon walls for the elusive structures. <i>Where are those little rascals?</i> Before my inquiries are considered by the guides, however, there is something equally important to address.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">Lunch time!</span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-dobhVzeJwws/Vmw2KfAmdpI/AAAAAAAAKy0/LztNswg-uu4/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B171LunchDay2%2B.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-dobhVzeJwws/Vmw2KfAmdpI/AAAAAAAAKy0/LztNswg-uu4/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B171LunchDay2%2B.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Beverage of choice on the river</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-G_O0Wm0qq28/Vmw2ViOX0XI/AAAAAAAAKy8/wbN9KJ1hHRw/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B172.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-G_O0Wm0qq28/Vmw2ViOX0XI/AAAAAAAAKy8/wbN9KJ1hHRw/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B172.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">38.5 Mile lunch spot</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-3QRCLVcktZo/Vmw2gb4fBtI/AAAAAAAAKzE/rOMjvHRrceE/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B184.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-3QRCLVcktZo/Vmw2gb4fBtI/AAAAAAAAKzE/rOMjvHRrceE/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B184.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Enjoying the moment</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">I watch as an assortment of watercraft skips by on a baffle of rapids.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" class="YOUTUBE-iframe-video" data-thumbnail-src="https://i.ytimg.com/vi/tNRfo4UD_z0/0.jpg" frameborder="0" height="266" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/tNRfo4UD_z0?feature=player_embedded" width="320"></iframe></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">In eastern Grand Canyon, rocks of the Temple Butte Formation outcrop as isolated, lens-shaped structures that have been identified as channel fill deposits. These deposits coalesce and thicken to the west. In late Devonian times, 370 million years ago, shallow marine conditions existed along a passive continental margin in the area that would one day become the Grand Canyon. It was a widespread continental shelf covered by a clear shallow sea, similar to what eastern Florida or the Yucatan is today. Rivers flowing outward from the continent found their way to the sea and formed tidal estuaries along the shallow shelf. What we know today as the <a href="http://files.geology.utah.gov/surveynotes/archives/SNT15-4.pdf"><i>Wasatch Hinge Line</i></a></span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">&nbsp;was the boundary, 370 million years ago, between the shallow continental shelf to the east and a deeper, rapidly subsiding ocean basin to the west. The channel fill deposits I am looking for are evidence of these estuaries.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">After lunch, I finally see something suspiciously lens-shaped, and nearly jump out of the boat. Can you see it?<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-MVlI-I9-YZE/Vmw3cy-6aGI/AAAAAAAAKzM/Udly90UxQh4/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B186Devonian%2BChannel.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-MVlI-I9-YZE/Vmw3cy-6aGI/AAAAAAAAKzM/Udly90UxQh4/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B186Devonian%2BChannel.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">A channel at last!</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;">This red line should help.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-AJA-INrRvxQ/Vmw30qkkoDI/AAAAAAAAKzU/7I2fJMg05cU/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B186Devonian%2BChannel_Outline.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-AJA-INrRvxQ/Vmw30qkkoDI/AAAAAAAAKzU/7I2fJMg05cU/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B186Devonian%2BChannel_Outline.jpg" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Outline of the channel</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">In the next image, another channel is just above the hats. It is on the other side of the river and might be related to the first one but I cannot be certain. I am clearly too excited to keep track. The other rafters do not know what to make of my frenzy until I point out the lens shapes.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-OJtag_omZ7A/Vmw4GNpgIAI/AAAAAAAAKzc/CqzpUn7Iw2I/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B188.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-OJtag_omZ7A/Vmw4GNpgIAI/AAAAAAAAKzc/CqzpUn7Iw2I/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B188.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Another Devonian channel fill remnant</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;">An <i>unconformity</i> is a break in the geologic rock record. It signifies a period of time during which erosion occurred, or during which there was no deposition. Or both. These channels are significant in that they mark the top of an unconformity between the older, underlying Middle Cambrian Muav Limestone (530 million years old) and the younger, overlying Late Devonian Temple Butte Formation (370 million years old). The Cambrian-Devonian unconformity is an extensive break in the rock record that represents missing time of the late Cambrian, all of the Ordovician, all of the Silurian, and most of the Early and Middle Devonian geologic periods. It is an enigmatic chunk of geologic time that no longer exists.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;">We motor on, in shadows and sunshine.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-1MQGSpHQlGs/Vmw7iGuLrMI/AAAAAAAAKzo/WqeM1aKT4hM/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B193.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-1MQGSpHQlGs/Vmw7iGuLrMI/AAAAAAAAKzo/WqeM1aKT4hM/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B193.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">An early dam site</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;">Near river mile 39 the guides cut the engines, tether the boats, and stop for a few moments of togetherness. They speak quietly of the Marble Canyon dam that was proposed for this stretch of river but never built, and of the history of Colorado river allotments among seven particular western states since a 1922 compact was signed.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;">&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">Here is another video for your viewing pleasure. No musical accompaniment with this one.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" class="YOUTUBE-iframe-video" data-thumbnail-src="https://i.ytimg.com/vi/8NHqCRyml1E/0.jpg" frameborder="0" height="266" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/8NHqCRyml1E?feature=player_embedded" width="320"></iframe></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">Gravity happens. Rocks pop, detach, plummet and crash with impressive enthusiasm, straight off the sheer walls of the Redwall/Temple Butte/Undifferentiated Limestone/Muav. I wonder how recently <i>this</i> event occurred…<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-K1X-Ny04VT0/Vmw8m9rulEI/AAAAAAAAKzw/Bwg_e3b7r-Y/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B201.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-K1X-Ny04VT0/Vmw8m9rulEI/AAAAAAAAKzw/Bwg_e3b7r-Y/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B201.JPG" width="400" /></a></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-nf507a3HcD8/Vmw8t-tX8MI/AAAAAAAAKz4/7uQW9k3mSog/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B202.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-nf507a3HcD8/Vmw8t-tX8MI/AAAAAAAAKz4/7uQW9k3mSog/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B202.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Gravity happens</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-olNY065ardk/Vmw9WaSE2bI/AAAAAAAAK0I/FCmp9CoTtDA/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B205.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="400" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-olNY065ardk/Vmw9WaSE2bI/AAAAAAAAK0I/FCmp9CoTtDA/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B205.JPG" width="227" /></a></div><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">…or <i>this</i> beauty, not far downstream on the opposite side. Was there an earthquake recently, that caused these events to occur in such proximity to each other? The guides have no idea. The dust is settled. The rock falls look fresh enough to have happened yesterday. Did they make a sound? Did anyone hear?<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-wdrDa-JZSqM/Vmw905CKpWI/AAAAAAAAK0Q/ejJ6OO8iyB4/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B207.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="226" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-wdrDa-JZSqM/Vmw905CKpWI/AAAAAAAAK0Q/ejJ6OO8iyB4/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B207.JPG" width="400" /></a></div><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-rlFbmTrCQhM/Vmw-cFmt_vI/AAAAAAAAK0g/4ZwtyqMGewM/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B209.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="400" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-rlFbmTrCQhM/Vmw-cFmt_vI/AAAAAAAAK0g/4ZwtyqMGewM/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B209.JPG" width="227" /></a></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">We sidle up to Saddle Canyon for our second night’s camp. The sun slowly drops behind the towering cliffs but the rocks still glow in its reflection. Exhausted, I am ready to forego a three-mile hike up the canyon when the guides call “Happy Hour!” After giving it some thought, the guides reschedule the hike for the morning. I for one am pleased with the decision.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-PZp4tF2XcGU/Vmw-xjRSimI/AAAAAAAAK0o/pS3rUpiP9YE/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B217SaddleCyn2ndNightCampsite%2B.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="262" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-PZp4tF2XcGU/Vmw-xjRSimI/AAAAAAAAK0o/pS3rUpiP9YE/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B217SaddleCyn2ndNightCampsite%2B.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Sidling up to Saddle Canyon</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">Kris and I set up and relocate our tents several times, not only to be out of the main traffic pattern but also to avoid a view of “the groover” (more on “the groover” later). I am hot. The cool river beckons so I bring soap, a towel, and a change of clothes down to the beach where the boats are tied. I dunk myself in the 50° shallows and quickly wash my hair with that old campers standby, Dr. Bronner’s peppermint soap.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-uBeYwDdJxEA/Vmw_yO-zpZI/AAAAAAAAK0w/nlExxaaGmsY/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B218.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-uBeYwDdJxEA/Vmw_yO-zpZI/AAAAAAAAK0w/nlExxaaGmsY/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B218.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Beyonce guards the boats</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 17.12px;">Folks socialize around the tents and at the beach until dinner. Box wine and beer stays chilled in a bucket of that 50° river water. Dusk brings a campfire in the cast-iron fire pit over which the guides had grilled burgers and cooked a dutch-oven carrot cake. I sip one last cup of wine, marvel at white pin points of stars dancing madly against the blue-black sky, say goodnight to the Milky Way, and crawl contentedly inside my tent, certain there are more Devonian channel fill deposits in my future.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-3s8SDjvHN84/Vmw_49yngGI/AAAAAAAAK04/U366-Ik0kvI/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B219Muav%2BLimestoneAt%2BSaddleCanyon.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-3s8SDjvHN84/Vmw_49yngGI/AAAAAAAAK04/U366-Ik0kvI/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B219Muav%2BLimestoneAt%2BSaddleCanyon.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">View upriver from the beach below Saddle Canyon</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><div style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><div style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;">****************************************</span></div><div style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><b><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></b></div><div class="MsoNormal"><b><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">References:<o:p></o:p></span></b></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Beus, S., 2003, Temple Butte Formation <i>in </i>Beus, S. and Morales, M., eds., Grand Canyon Geology, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Blakey, R. and Ranney, W., 2008, Ancient Landscapes of the Colorado Plateau<i>, </i>Grand Canyon Association<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Collier, M., 1980, An Introduction to Grand Canyon Geology, Grand Canyon Natural History Association<o:p></o:p></span></div><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"> </span><br /><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Stevens, L., 2013, The Colorado River in Grand Canyon – River Map &amp; Guide, Grand Canyon Wildlands Council<o:p></o:p></span></div></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"><br /></span></div></div>Nina Fhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08965179274125274725noreply@blogger.com2tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3549921150562790106.post-85456183478239615922015-11-28T04:00:00.000-07:002015-11-28T07:00:51.854-07:00Living The Dream, Day 3 - Swinging a Cat in the Redwall Limestone<div class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN" style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN;">Departing South Canyon, our guides deftly maneuver the rafts ever-so-carefully backwards, away from the beach and into the main channel. We happily avoid crashing into and sinking the flotilla of dainty dories that has stealthily crept up behind us. We cheer, wave, and point our behemoth boats downstream, leaving the dory riders to make their own discoveries amid the South Canyon ruins. It is mid-morning of our first full day rafting on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. I am beside myself with enthusiasm, thrilled that there is room on the raft for both of me.<o:p></o:p></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-vvaenINRv5Y/Vlkg1CdafXI/AAAAAAAAKt4/cjnA08hFqHs/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B121.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-vvaenINRv5Y/Vlkg1CdafXI/AAAAAAAAKt4/cjnA08hFqHs/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B121.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Dories incoming! (<b>click on any pix to enlargenate</b>)</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN" style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN;"></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN" style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN;"></span></div><a name='more'></a><br /><div class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN" style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN;">At this point the canyon takes a wide swing to the left, the entrenched meandering river carving deeper and deeper into the older, lower layers of the Redwall Limestone, exposing its many caves. You could swing a cat right now and it would easily land inside the darkness of Stanton’s Cave. Swing a bit harder and it would land in the lushness of Vasey’s Paradise. Swing really hard and that kitty just might find itself paws down on the soft sand at Redwall Cavern, about a river mile and a half downstream.<o:p></o:p></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-1YZ4OCQdr-U/VlkhBZB01VI/AAAAAAAAKuA/Hoj43Zmkj6w/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B126.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-1YZ4OCQdr-U/VlkhBZB01VI/AAAAAAAAKuA/Hoj43Zmkj6w/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B126.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">I think that's Stanton's Cave on the lower right</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN" style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">Stanton’s Cave was named for Robert Brewster Stanton. He was chief engineer of an expedition in 1889-1890, optimistically surveying the Grand Canyon for a possible water-level railroad line through the pre-Glen Canyon dam canyon. He used the cave to cache supplies. </span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">Archaeological materials found here, mostly in the form of split-twig figurines, have been dated to between 3000 and 4000 years ago. Pleistocene vertebrate remains have also been excavated in the cave. Today the cave is closed to the curious public due to its being an important female bat-roosting area, particularly Townsend’s big-eared bats. For more info on the bats, check out the web reference below for the cave.</span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-RUWbxyL0YGw/VlkhXOkiJNI/AAAAAAAAKuI/cOMQoiGm0_Y/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B129.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-RUWbxyL0YGw/VlkhXOkiJNI/AAAAAAAAKuI/cOMQoiGm0_Y/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B129.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Coming up on Vasey's Paradise</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">Vasey’s Paradise is a groundwater channel in the Mooney Falls Member of the Redwall Limestone. It was named by John Wesley Powell in honor of botanist George Vasey. Vasey accompanied Powell on his 1868 “Rocky Mountain Scientific Exploring Expedition” but was not a member of the party when Powell took his famous first ride down the river in 1869. Click the link below for more info on Vasey’s Paradise.</span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-fZGm7t8KuYc/VlkhvJCL2_I/AAAAAAAAKuQ/Afwg9jkmH5Y/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B130VaseysParadise.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-fZGm7t8KuYc/VlkhvJCL2_I/AAAAAAAAKuQ/Afwg9jkmH5Y/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B130VaseysParadise.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Vasey's Paradise</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-YB8dfsCanWU/Vlkh1qoy__I/AAAAAAAAKuY/1IhP_-F4FOo/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B131.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="400" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-YB8dfsCanWU/Vlkh1qoy__I/AAAAAAAAKuY/1IhP_-F4FOo/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B131.JPG" width="227" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Vasey's Paradise</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">We are still in the Redwall Limestone, but the rocks, they are a-changing. Not-so-subtle differences display themselves at river level. So… although Vasey’s Paradise flows through the Mooney Falls Member, it is up there on the cliffs. Now, in the older rocks at river level, it is a different story. The distinctively banded Thunder Springs Member has appeared, and it’s impressive.</span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-6lBMtNuUUPw/VlkiDSTUQiI/AAAAAAAAKug/UhyOGctv2Ew/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B134.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-6lBMtNuUUPw/VlkiDSTUQiI/AAAAAAAAKug/UhyOGctv2Ew/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B134.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Thunder Springs Member, Redwall Limestone</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-V5wKKhe9BTs/VlkiLZGm2XI/AAAAAAAAKuo/Kmn3SvKg4os/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B135.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-V5wKKhe9BTs/VlkiLZGm2XI/AAAAAAAAKuo/Kmn3SvKg4os/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B135.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Chert/carbonate banding is distinctive and not a bit overwhelming</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-sA4CqqdkzqI/VlkiTHDTuzI/AAAAAAAAKuw/FIkgzNELTwE/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B137.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-sA4CqqdkzqI/VlkiTHDTuzI/AAAAAAAAKuw/FIkgzNELTwE/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B137.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Thunder Springs Member - impressive among superlatives</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN" style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN;"></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN" style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN;">In a world of superlatives that define Grand Canyon geology, the Thunder Springs Member of the Redwall Limestone is up there with the best of them. In speechless silence we float through this straight stretch of canyon, each of us lost in thought, overwhelmed by the beauty and mystery and absolute presence of these banded layers.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN" style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN" style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN;"></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">The seas come in, the seas go out. The rocks of the Redwall tell the story of two key episodes of the transgression (advance) and regression (retreat) of a shallow sea 340 million years ago. The Thunder Springs rocks are part of this story. Its sediments were deposited as the sea retreated off the continent, becoming more and more shallow as geologic time passed. The banded appearance is due to alternating layers of dark reddish brown or dark gray silica (chert) and light gray carbonates (limestone or dolostone).<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN" style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN;">I can’t help myself. I either must press the video button on my camera or I will fall out of the boat gawking:<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN" style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN" style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN;"></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><iframe allowfullscreen="" class="YOUTUBE-iframe-video" data-thumbnail-src="https://i.ytimg.com/vi/hF5oeYvYURc/0.jpg" frameborder="0" height="266" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/hF5oeYvYURc?feature=player_embedded" width="320"></iframe></div><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;">Another bend in the river brings us to a large natural amphitheater named Redwall Cavern. On his first (1869) expedition down the river, Major Powell had this to say:</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN" style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN;"> <b><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">August 8</span></b><i><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">: "The water sweeps rapidly in this elbow of river, and has cut its way under the rock, excavating a vast half-circular chamber, which, if utilized for a theater, would give sitting to 50,000 people. Objection might be raised against it, however, for at high water the floor is covered with a raging flood." (quote courtesy <a href="http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/canyon/maps/maptext.html" rel="nofollow" target="_blank"><b>PBS</b></a>).&nbsp;</span></i></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN" style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN;"><i><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></i></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-MW-sp6tNzqk/VlkkG9OJEmI/AAAAAAAAKu8/nCtcQpPZoe0/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B140RedwallCavern%2B.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-MW-sp6tNzqk/VlkkG9OJEmI/AAAAAAAAKu8/nCtcQpPZoe0/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B140RedwallCavern%2B.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Redwall Cavern</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN" style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN;">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 107%;">The familiar chert/carbonate banding is clearly visible. We are still within the Thunder Springs Member. We disembark onto the soft sand and have a look around.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-1hBu_UC03C8/VlkkVPFgrLI/AAAAAAAAKvE/Kki-Dzebf_o/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B142.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-1hBu_UC03C8/VlkkVPFgrLI/AAAAAAAAKvE/Kki-Dzebf_o/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B142.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Hitting the sand at Redwall Cavern</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-kUjc3Db6Z5s/VlkkcY91mZI/AAAAAAAAKvM/Nc6PDvlF7SE/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B149KrisInvestigates.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-kUjc3Db6Z5s/VlkkcY91mZI/AAAAAAAAKvM/Nc6PDvlF7SE/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B149KrisInvestigates.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Rafting buddy Kris investigates the bands</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-FTeAfo_Fzxs/VlkkmGU66wI/AAAAAAAAKvU/2VV13VEvAwc/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B153MeAtRedwall%2BCavern.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-FTeAfo_Fzxs/VlkkmGU66wI/AAAAAAAAKvU/2VV13VEvAwc/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B153MeAtRedwall%2BCavern.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">I love this place and everything about it!</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN" style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN;"></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-no-proof: yes;">Jay the guide points across the river to a rounded structure at river level. It is a <i>bioherm</i>, a mound or dome-shaped mass of rock composed of the calcareous (shell) remains of sedentary shallow-ocean organisms such as corals, algae, gastropods, mollusks, and the like. The bioherms are generally surrounded by a different kind of rock (for example, a non-reef limestone). I vaguely wonder what the correlation might be, if any, &nbsp;with the cavern – they both have a similarly rounded shape (although the cavern is much larger?), both are at water level, both are within the same member of the Redwall. Hmmm… The bioherm looks quite substantial, actually, once you stare at it long enough. Which is what I do while Kris examines some banding.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-no-proof: yes;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-f-BtdEVZi_0/VlklEoikQFI/AAAAAAAAKvc/hrCh0-kJ9vw/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B148Bioherm.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="210" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-f-BtdEVZi_0/VlklEoikQFI/AAAAAAAAKvc/hrCh0-kJ9vw/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B148Bioherm.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">A bioherm</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-PrJVAFiVMec/VlklOHfSnuI/AAAAAAAAKvk/JSfqCmgJLwI/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B152Bioherm.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-PrJVAFiVMec/VlklOHfSnuI/AAAAAAAAKvk/JSfqCmgJLwI/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B152Bioherm.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Bioherm close-up</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN" style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN;">I continue lollygagging at the cavern’s edge, and soon notice that everyone, even Kris, is back on the boat, patiently waiting for me to finish staring at the bioherm.&nbsp; I scamper over the rocks, hoist myself on board with all the grace I can muster, and we push off once more. We are leaving the Redwall. <i>It’s been fun!</i> However, it is time for the Cambrian Muav Limestone to put in an appearance. It’s over there at river level, just beyond the bioherm and beneath the Bridge of Sighs.<o:p></o:p></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-kZ3WkKmciW8/Vlkl46HkFoI/AAAAAAAAKvs/DGT3pPvCNHg/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B157BridgeOfSighs%2B.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="400" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-kZ3WkKmciW8/Vlkl46HkFoI/AAAAAAAAKvs/DGT3pPvCNHg/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B157BridgeOfSighs%2B.JPG" width="230" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Bridge of Sighs</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN" style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;">************************************</div><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><div class="MsoNormal"><b><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">References:<o:p></o:p></span></b></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Abbott, L., and Cook, T., 2004, <i>Hiking the Grand Canyon’s Geology</i>, The Mountaineer Books<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Beus, S., 2003, <i>Redwall Limestone and Surprise Canyon Formation,</i>&nbsp;in:<i> </i>Beus, S. and Morales, M., eds., Grand Canyon Geology, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Blakey, R. and Ranney, W., 2008, <i>Ancient Landscapes of the Colorado Plateau, </i>Grand Canyon Association<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Collier, M., 1980, <i>An Introduction to Grand Canyon Geology</i>, Grand Canyon Natural History Association<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Stegner, W., 1953, <i>Beyond the Hundredth Meridian: John Wesley Powell and the Second Opening of the West</i>, Penguin Books (1992)<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Stevens, L., 2013, <i>The Colorado River in Grand Canyon – River Map &amp; Guide</i>, Grand Canyon Wildlands Council<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><a href="http://www.utep.edu/leb/PleistNM/sites/StantonCave.htm">http://www.utep.edu/leb/PleistNM/sites/StantonCave.htm</a>&nbsp; (accessed 11/27/2015)<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><a href="http://www.azheritagewaters.nau.edu/loc_VaseysParadise.html">http://www.azheritagewaters.nau.edu/loc_VaseysParadise.html</a>(11/27/2015)<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN" style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN" style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN;"><br /></span></div>Nina Fhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08965179274125274725noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3549921150562790106.post-25881603812127769292015-11-25T16:57:00.000-07:002015-12-12T12:10:21.311-07:00Living the Dream, Day 3 – Ruins and the Redwall<div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">I awaken slowly in the spring dawn and stretch inside my sleeping bag, feeling stiff and brittle as a sun-bleached boat paddle. Footsteps crunch gently across the sandy beach. Softly muffled chatter grows louder, pots and pans clang more frequently as our guides begin breakfast preparations at their lavish camp kitchen. It is time to extricate myself from my ground-dwelling nest. The coffee gong sounds brash and heavenly. It is the morning of our first full day on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon; on hands and knees I crawl out of my already sandy tent and shake myself awake, keen to continue the adventure. Just throw me in the river and I will limber up in no time.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">The cowboy coffee is perfect, nearly strong enough to stand a spoon upright in the middle of my cup. Breakfast is hot and plentiful, and apparently we have choices.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">Guide in gaudy flowered apron:<i> How would you like your eggs?<o:p></o:p></i></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;"><i><br /></i></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 106%;">Me:</span></span><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 106%;"> How about eggs&nbsp;</span></span></i><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US;">Benedict?</span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif;"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 106%;"><br /></span></span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">Guide:<i> Scrambled it is!<o:p></o:p></i></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;"><i><br /></i></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-_LwsaLvTPN0/VlY3E-MXuJI/AAAAAAAAKrQ/hrqJHKgOws4/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B060.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-_LwsaLvTPN0/VlY3E-MXuJI/AAAAAAAAKrQ/hrqJHKgOws4/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B060.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Packing the j-rigs<br />(<b>click on any pic to enlargenate</b>)</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 106%;"></span></div><a name='more'></a><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 106%;">Perched in our camp chairs we enjoy a leisurely meal and a third cup of coffee, and watch the changing light brighten the rock layers as the sun crests the cliffs behind us. Soon it’s time to tote our dry bags to the boats, heave them and everything else to the guides, jump aboard, and push ourselves off downstream into the shimmering river and bright blue sky.</span><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-JPprYlpnkYU/VlY3UoxMkxI/AAAAAAAAKrY/Uf4-2ilsrJw/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B066.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-JPprYlpnkYU/VlY3UoxMkxI/AAAAAAAAKrY/Uf4-2ilsrJw/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B066.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">A &nbsp;beautiful morning to be on the river</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Bt9EKHihsvo/VlY3mtAb7FI/AAAAAAAAKro/Nl_aSH-ToM8/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B071BuzzAnd%2BBeyonce.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Bt9EKHihsvo/VlY3mtAb7FI/AAAAAAAAKro/Nl_aSH-ToM8/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B071BuzzAnd%2BBeyonce.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Guide Buzz &amp; Beyonce, the raven with the diamond choker &amp; pink pfd</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-I8Q6md0c_88/VlY46qVoAVI/AAAAAAAAKsI/YLEk3rTZtEw/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B074.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-I8Q6md0c_88/VlY46qVoAVI/AAAAAAAAKsI/YLEk3rTZtEw/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B074.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">That rapid really looks like fun!</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">Somewhere along this stretch of river, and in other places at the top of the Redwall, are outcrops of the Surprise Canyon Formation. These rocks are evidence of a major estuary system that once existed along an ancient western edge of the continent. &nbsp;Deep valleys had been carved by rivers into the bedrock&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 106%;">Redwall Limestone</span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 106%;">&nbsp;and then flooded again by intermittent seas during Late Mississippian times, 325 million years ago. It is the least visible rock unit in the Park, mostly because its outcrops are so remote and also because it does not display in unbroken layers but only as discontinuous lens-shaped areas that are remnants of the estuaries. I never do see any of it.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-6w6GgTaX-KQ/VlY3949Z-JI/AAAAAAAAKrw/52eINhoCrTo/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B075.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-6w6GgTaX-KQ/VlY3949Z-JI/AAAAAAAAKrw/52eINhoCrTo/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B075.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Another rapid!</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-5VzFYoyCJHQ/VlY4FSwcsmI/AAAAAAAAKr4/oF44UL4ytBM/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B076.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-5VzFYoyCJHQ/VlY4FSwcsmI/AAAAAAAAKr4/oF44UL4ytBM/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B076.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Yucca in bloom</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-z1EhG_sgs6Q/VlY4L3Z8exI/AAAAAAAAKsA/QN8mmDNYcI0/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B079.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-z1EhG_sgs6Q/VlY4L3Z8exI/AAAAAAAAKsA/QN8mmDNYcI0/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B079.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">The Redwall Limestone</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 106%;">We float down through strata of Redwall Limestone, massive and distinctive, a 500-foot to 800-foot-thick behemoth of a cliff-former that can be traced continuously over nearly the entire length of the Canyon. There are four units – from youngest to oldest (down section) these are the Horseshoe Mesa Member, the Mooney Falls Member, the Thunder Springs Member, and the Whitmore Wash Member. I have absolutely no idea which layer is which until I get home, gaze at my pictures lovingly and longingly, check my references until my brain begins to wilt, and try to figure out at least a smidgen of the stratigraphy. My best guess (six months later) is that we are within the Mooney Falls, the thickest member of the Redwall. It will become clear a little later downstream (</span><i style="font-family: Cambria, serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 106%;">Now</i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 106%;"> </span><i style="font-family: Cambria, serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 106%;">I tell me!) </i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12pt; line-height: 106%;">as to why I best guess this.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">Meanwhile, at around river mile 30.5 the scene shifts. The layers are no longer horizontal, at least for the moment. We are crossing Fence Fault, a down-to-the-west, normal fault where younger Permian rocks have been down-dropped relative to older Mississippian rocks.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-tg_BcB0kIEM/VlY5evP0tDI/AAAAAAAAKsQ/Rb6ndPUlKew/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B087FenceFault.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-tg_BcB0kIEM/VlY5evP0tDI/AAAAAAAAKsQ/Rb6ndPUlKew/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B087FenceFault.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Fence Fault - darker Permian strata is down-to-the-west</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-H9JWU0AN2mo/VlY5lAV_WkI/AAAAAAAAKsc/60pG4GeT_oU/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B088FenceFault.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-H9JWU0AN2mo/VlY5lAV_WkI/AAAAAAAAKsc/60pG4GeT_oU/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B088FenceFault.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Fence Fault</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">Three hundred and forty million years ago in Mississippian times the Grand Canyon area was a passive continental margin near the equator. Pretty much the entire western interior portion of North America was covered by a widespread, shallow tropical sea that extended from Canada to Arizona and all the way to Kansas. The rocks we see in the Redwall are basically pure limestone, deposited over millions of years as calcium carbonate (CaCO<sub>3)</sub> precipitated out of solution and as shelled organisms died and fell to the bottom of the sea, all in “an unbroken rain of carbonate debris” (Collier). Similar deposition occurs today in semiarid environments such as Florida and the Persian Gulf, each located on shallow ocean shelves where few rivers exist to bring in muddy, or <i>clastic</i>, sediments. These clastic-free expanses were (and still are) the perfect habitat for limestone-secreting organisms to not only survive but thrive.&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-bZVTj_kFw34/VlY52cv0aUI/AAAAAAAAKsk/-ih6DaMWNeA/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B098.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-bZVTj_kFw34/VlY52cv0aUI/AAAAAAAAKsk/-ih6DaMWNeA/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B098.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Along the Redwall, nearing South Canyon</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">The guides pilot the rigs onto a sandy beach at the mouth of South Canyon, near river mile 32. I day-hiked around here years ago, from the head of the canyon up near the Vermillion Cliffs (I never made it all the way to the river, though, but that is another story for another day). We disembark in the warm sunshine, and for an hour or so hike a short trail to view Native American petroglyphs and ruins. We also find fossils embedded in the rocks.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-y6DgSv_PTtM/VlY7A2BjHbI/AAAAAAAAKsw/tWsRjKfDK6c/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B104.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="242" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-y6DgSv_PTtM/VlY7A2BjHbI/AAAAAAAAKsw/tWsRjKfDK6c/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B104.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Trail to South Canyon Ruins</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-wgO-hSaAv88/VlY7I8qHgdI/AAAAAAAAKs4/F06Rd9i5-z8/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B105.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-wgO-hSaAv88/VlY7I8qHgdI/AAAAAAAAKs4/F06Rd9i5-z8/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B105.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Kris checks out the petroglyphs at South Canyon&nbsp;</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-BtWI1i947sc/VlY7RvRdX5I/AAAAAAAAKtA/Wapn-aoeCTc/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B111.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="400" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-BtWI1i947sc/VlY7RvRdX5I/AAAAAAAAKtA/Wapn-aoeCTc/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B111.JPG" width="227" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">South Canyon Ruins&nbsp;</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US;">I am so taken with the views up and down the river that I don’t hear a word of what the guide says about the ruins.&nbsp; Fossils in the limestone also seize and hold my attention. The Mooney Falls Member of the Redwall is chock full of fossil life – sponges, corals, brachiopods, crinoids, straight and coiled nautiloids. The fact that fossils of these organisms <i>are</i>found here tells us much about the conditions and depth of the seawater at the time of deposition.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">The sea must be shallow enough for photosynthesis to occur, around 100-200 feet depth. Photosynthesizing plants provide the food for many marine organisms such as our corals, brachiopods, and sponges. It follows, then, that shallow, clear, limy waters with little or no mud offer the best environment for shell-secreting sea critters to survive and thrive.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-8Qv6D1lGrZc/VlY8VtRinjI/AAAAAAAAKtI/E-qpyx-1ev4/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B114.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="233" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-8Qv6D1lGrZc/VlY8VtRinjI/AAAAAAAAKtI/E-qpyx-1ev4/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B114.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Fossil coral - horn? rugose? &nbsp;Anyone out there know?</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-hT7R6u5hCrk/VlY8b0ZR6DI/AAAAAAAAKtQ/KECCoRS9s8k/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B115.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="247" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-hT7R6u5hCrk/VlY8b0ZR6DI/AAAAAAAAKtQ/KECCoRS9s8k/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B115.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Fossil coral. See previous caption.</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-k5jkTCbHdQk/VlY8hklh4BI/AAAAAAAAKtY/JVoHCTqPd4o/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B116SpongeFossil%2B.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="241" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-k5jkTCbHdQk/VlY8hklh4BI/AAAAAAAAKtY/JVoHCTqPd4o/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B116SpongeFossil%2B.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Fossil sponge</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">We make our way down the rocky slope and hop ourselves back on to the boats. A flotilla of dories rows up to shore as we push off downstream. It’s time for new discoveries for everyone and we haven't even had lunch yet!</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-Wotbu9B3d8I/VlY9dsEKhgI/AAAAAAAAKtg/JI0AGQ11KJg/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B118.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="233" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-Wotbu9B3d8I/VlY9dsEKhgI/AAAAAAAAKtg/JI0AGQ11KJg/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B118.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Dories row up as we are leaving</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-adgtuUcVn44/VlY9sBbL3sI/AAAAAAAAKto/vECHhUCNaIU/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B100Datura.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="300" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-adgtuUcVn44/VlY9sBbL3sI/AAAAAAAAKto/vECHhUCNaIU/s320/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B100Datura.JPG" width="320" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Datura trailside</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;"><i><br /></i></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;"><i><br /></i></span></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;"><i>*****************************************</i></span></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;"><i><br /></i></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><b><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">References:<o:p></o:p></span></b></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">Abbott, L., and Cook, T., 2004, Hiking the Grand Canyon’s Geology, The Mountaineer Books<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">Beus, S., 2003, Redwall Limestone and Surprise Canyon Formation <i>in </i>Beus, S. and Morales, M., eds., Grand Canyon Geology, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">Blakey, R. and Ranney, W., 2008, Ancient Landscapes of the Colorado Plateau<i>, </i>Grand Canyon Association<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">Collier, M., 1980, An Introduction to Grand Canyon Geology, Grand Canyon Natural History Association<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 106%;">Stevens, L., 2013, The Colorado River in Grand Canyon – River Map &amp; Guide, Grand Canyon Wildlands Council<o:p></o:p></span></div>Nina Fhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08965179274125274725noreply@blogger.com2tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3549921150562790106.post-68950709930889919472015-11-15T19:55:00.001-07:002015-12-12T12:09:34.386-07:00Living the Dream, Day 2 – Peeling Back the Layers <div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Over hundreds of millions of years, the seas came in and the seas went out, covering and then exposing the changing landscape of western North America. Sediments were deposited, uplifted, and eroded in the eternal cycles of geologic time. The vertical cliffs and tumbling slopes of Grand Canyon expose the most complete stratigraphic record of Earth’s geologic history, a record more extensive than anywhere else on the planet. I have wanted to see these rocks from a raft on the Colorado River for as long as I can remember. I am finally living my dream.</span><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-KRpGmyNraL4/Vkk1bsOoHII/AAAAAAAAKoc/LAUuNV_fiqo/s1600/035PointingAt%2BBigRock.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-KRpGmyNraL4/Vkk1bsOoHII/AAAAAAAAKoc/LAUuNV_fiqo/s400/035PointingAt%2BBigRock.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Pointing at Rocks<br />(<b>click on &nbsp;any pic to enlargenate</b>)</td></tr></tbody></table></div><div class="MsoNormal"><a name='more'></a><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Our pair of rafts glide serenely down canyon, down section. We have been on the river only a few hours. People chatter softly and point excitedly at what they see. With each passing river mile, singular layers of rocks become older by unknown increments of geologic time. How old is <i>that</i> layer? How did <i>that</i> get there? What is <i>its</i>tale to tell? We need to consider the chronology in a backwards framework, not the easiest way to figure out a progression of events leading to the present. Instead of thinking “<i>This </i>happened, and then something followed,” we must consider in reverse how these rocks were deposited. <i>This</i> happened, but <i>something</i> <i>else</i>&nbsp;happened earlier. It’s mind bending, and I love every minute.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-HiAraCmjNXE/Vkk13B06rNI/AAAAAAAAKok/iJmM7hZrGh8/s1600/040HermitShale%2BAndRapid.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-HiAraCmjNXE/Vkk13B06rNI/AAAAAAAAKok/iJmM7hZrGh8/s400/040HermitShale%2BAndRapid.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Hermit Shale at river level</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><b><i><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;">Sandstone, shale, limestone</span></i></b><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;">. It is the mantra of the sequence of deposition. You learn it in introductory geology class but sometimes it takes a while for the concept to gel in your mind.</span></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14pt; line-height: 107%;">Before the </span><b style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; font-size: 14pt; line-height: 107%;"><a href="/2015/11/living-dream-day-2-goodbye-moenkopi.html" target="_blank"><i>vast desert dunes of the Coconino Sandstone</i></a></b><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14pt; line-height: 107%;"><i> </i>covered the landscape, an extensive river system existed which would one day become the Early (Lower) Permian red rocks of the 285-million year old Hermit Shale. Weathering and erosion of an elevated region called the Uncompahgre Uplift transported these river sediments across an arid landscape. Sandstones and some conglomerates found their place in the river channels where water flow energy was greatest. Lighter muds and silts were deposited later, in floodplains, as the energy of the river decreased or temporarily overflowed its banks. For the most part, though, silty sandstone and sandy mudstone are the most commonly found rock type in the Hermit.</span></span><br /><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-7WrqbEf_fuI/Vkk2W7kRYQI/AAAAAAAAKos/Zfzl4nKedvo/s1600/041HermitFm.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-7WrqbEf_fuI/Vkk2W7kRYQI/AAAAAAAAKos/Zfzl4nKedvo/s400/041HermitFm.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">This must be the Esplanade Sandstone at river level</td></tr></tbody></table><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;">The cliffs and splendidly sloping layers of the older Supai Group are generally understood to have been deposited along a broad coastal plain. The <i>Esplanade Sandstone</i> (Lower Permian), <i>Wescogame Formation</i> (Upper Pennsylvanian), <i>Manakacha Formation and Watahomigi Formation</i> (both&nbsp;Lower Pennsylvanian) – these layers comprise the Supai Group, from youngest to oldest, down slope, down section. I have no way at all to differential them. We do not stop but just drift by, the ledges and slopes keeping their secrets to themselves.</span></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"></span><br /><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;">However, after I had come home and started researching the geology of the Canyon, I discover that rocks of the Manakacha Formation heralded an important change in deposition patterns from the previous 200 million years. Up until this time, the area was dominated by carbonates (limestones) and minor mudstones, indicating shallow sea conditions. The predominance of quartz sand in the Manakacha is early evidence of a major shift occurring towards desert and sand dune conditions across much of the western interior of the United States.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Somewhere in the Supai our guides steer the boats out of the channel to pause alongside an overhanging sandstone ledge. There is a rock hammer and a date etched into the sandstone by members of a US Geologic Survey expedition. In 1923 the group had descended the Colorado River, seeking to decide the fate of Grand Canyon. Fifty years after John Wesley Powell had journeyed these same waters, the USGS party was there to determine the best place to build a dam. Their dam was never built, but the group played a big role in what was known about the Canyon. Hoover and Glen Canyon dams were eventually built elsewhere along the river.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-O091dPV4f0E/Vkk7TnGglCI/AAAAAAAAKo8/T0XGHtWZmAs/s1600/047_1923USGS%2BRockHammer.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="261" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-O091dPV4f0E/Vkk7TnGglCI/AAAAAAAAKo8/T0XGHtWZmAs/s400/047_1923USGS%2BRockHammer.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">1923 USGS etching</td></tr></tbody></table><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14pt; line-height: 107%;">I like the Esplanade Sandstone. Over the years, I have hiked on it for many wonderfully flat and scenic miles in the Toroweap area, in western Grand Canyon. It is a distinctive sandstone layer throughout the Canyon, thinner to the east while thicker to the west, sandwiched between the underlying Wescogame Formation and the overlying Hermit Shale. Cross-bedding in the sandstone suggests that the Esplanade is of eolian, or wind-blown, origin. The westward-thickening strata denotes the retreat of a shallow sea and the advance of desert sand dunes.</span><br /><br /><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-7neS50f8Zx8/Vkk737GCumI/AAAAAAAAKpE/3B2zcB_Gdlo/s1600/049SupaiGrp.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-7neS50f8Zx8/Vkk737GCumI/AAAAAAAAKpE/3B2zcB_Gdlo/s400/049SupaiGrp.JPG" width="400" /></a></div><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><br /><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Geologic time and the layers of rocks peel themselves away as we continue downstream towards our first night’s camp site. We bid farewell to the Supai Group at river level. The Redwall is upon us.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-I1549odXWls/Vkk9fHCPZiI/AAAAAAAAKpQ/yvU1Mq3yLxU/s1600/051RedwallAt%2BRiverLevel.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-I1549odXWls/Vkk9fHCPZiI/AAAAAAAAKpQ/yvU1Mq3yLxU/s400/051RedwallAt%2BRiverLevel.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">The Redwall Limestone comes in at river level</td></tr></tbody></table><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-OwLkRFxQ4yg/Vkk9nCn1KRI/AAAAAAAAKpY/NuHQwN9zCCc/s1600/052BoatAndRock.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-OwLkRFxQ4yg/Vkk9nCn1KRI/AAAAAAAAKpY/NuHQwN9zCCc/s400/052BoatAndRock.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">I am fairly certain this spire has an off-color name but I forget what it is.</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;">At river mile 23.5, the guides tie the boats down for the night at a sandy spot at the top of the Redwall Limestone. We jump off, ready to get busy doing our part to offload pretty much everything that is on board. It becomes second nature, after a while, to form the bucket brigade and heave dry bags, chairs, pads, utensils, stoves, tables, and what-have-you either off of or onto the boat. With 27 folks pitching in, the chore does not take long. The guides set up the kitchen while the rest of us look for a place to nest for the night. Kris and I find a spot at the edge of civilization to set up our tents. It’s Happy Hour! The dinner bell rings. It’s time to eat so we drag our chairs over to the dining area near the chefs. We discover that these guides really know how to cook a tasty camp meal.<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="float: left; margin-right: 1em; text-align: left;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-4vBK3_Kjjms/Vkk-LdPgZGI/AAAAAAAAKpg/OP05PKMUpyQ/s1600/053FirstCampsite%2BRivermile23.5.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="clear: left; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-4vBK3_Kjjms/Vkk-LdPgZGI/AAAAAAAAKpg/OP05PKMUpyQ/s400/053FirstCampsite%2BRivermile23.5.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">All ashore!</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-6Enqyy8v-Ww/Vkk-Uo_oAUI/AAAAAAAAKpo/9Vjlrz-e-l4/s1600/054FirstCampsite.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-6Enqyy8v-Ww/Vkk-Uo_oAUI/AAAAAAAAKpo/9Vjlrz-e-l4/s400/054FirstCampsite.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">First night's camp</td></tr></tbody></table><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="float: right; margin-left: 1em; text-align: right;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-UYuWX3jUtUg/Vkk-gRyeRuI/AAAAAAAAKpw/kmw5WW5eONM/s1600/055FirstCampsite.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="clear: right; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-UYuWX3jUtUg/Vkk-gRyeRuI/AAAAAAAAKpw/kmw5WW5eONM/s400/055FirstCampsite.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Nests for the night</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"></span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><br /><div style="text-align: left;"><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;">Darkness comes slowly in the desert, even within the walls of the Canyon. I briefly wonder what time it is but then realize that I really don’t care. My watch and cell phone are back in Flagstaff, locked inside my car, tucked beneath the leftover field guides. I will see them all soon enough. After dinner I attempt a few notes in my journal. Words fail me, though, so I just sit and watch the growing darkness envelope our first camp on this early May nightfall alongside the Colorado River in Grand Canyon.</span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-fVfkYCXP_34/Vkk_L0_yyRI/AAAAAAAAKp4/FZzRmAgeUVA/s1600/058Moonset%2B1stCampsite.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="640" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-fVfkYCXP_34/Vkk_L0_yyRI/AAAAAAAAKp4/FZzRmAgeUVA/s640/058Moonset%2B1stCampsite.JPG" width="363" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Moonrise over Grand Canyon</td></tr></tbody></table><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><br /><div style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;">******************************</span></div><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><br /><div class="MsoNormal"><b><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;">References:<o:p></o:p></span></b><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; line-height: 17.12px;">Blakey, R., 2003,&nbsp;</span><i style="font-family: cambria, serif; line-height: 17.12px;">Supai Group and Hermit Formation</i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; line-height: 17.12px;">, in&nbsp;</span><i style="font-family: cambria, serif; line-height: 17.12px;">Grand Canyon Geology</i><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; line-height: 17.12px;">, 2nd ed., Beus, S. and Morales, M., eds., Oxford University Press</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; line-height: 107%;">Blakey, R. and Ranney, W., 2008, <i>Ancient Landscapes of the Colorado Plateau, </i>Grand Canyon Association<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; line-height: 107%;">Collier, M., 1980, <i>An Introduction to Grand Canyon Geology</i>, Grand Canyon Natural History Association</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; line-height: 107%;">Stevens, L., 2013, <i>The Colorado River in Grand Canyon – River Map &amp; Guide</i>, Grand Canyon Wildlands Council<span style="font-size: 14pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"> </span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 107%;"><br /></span></div>Nina Fhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08965179274125274725noreply@blogger.com6tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3549921150562790106.post-60463326604472233662015-11-02T21:59:00.000-07:002015-12-12T12:08:47.014-07:00Living the Dream, Day 2 – Goodbye Moenkopi, Hello Coconino<span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif; font-weight: normal;">We are up at 5am in the northern Arizona spring dawn, knocking back styro-cups of bad hotel room coffee and microwavedly weak tea. Kris takes off out the door for a pre-float jog. I stand in the middle of the room, bewildered, alternately stuffing stuff into or pulling stuff out of my dry bags (<i>How many field guides do I really need?</i>). Binoculars <i>could</i> come in handy, though, so back in they go (<i>Damn, those little rascals are heavy</i>). Kris returns refreshed. We eventually manage to drag our bags down the hall, into the elevator, and out into the lobby by the appointed 6am time, along with 21 other people of our ilk who have gone through pretty much the same ordeal. Kris stores her remaining valuables in a storage room locked until our return. I throw all leftover field guides into the back of my car and lock it, hoping it will be there when I return. After checking out of our rooms we are herded, along with 69 dry bags of assorted weightiness, into the latest reincarnation of an old school bus, upon whose seats we are soon swaying seatbelt-free and gleeful along a downtown stretch of Route 66. &nbsp;We turn north onto highway 89 and are on our way out of Flagstaff toward Lee’s Ferry, our put-in point.</span><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-Bfcs8NhGJMs/Vjg0vq-AYAI/AAAAAAAAKnE/yCZ5-za1iQ8/s1600/013The%2BBus.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: justify;"><img border="0" height="270" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-Bfcs8NhGJMs/Vjg0vq-AYAI/AAAAAAAAKnE/yCZ5-za1iQ8/s400/013The%2BBus.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Putting in at Lee's Ferry<br />(<b>click on any pic to enlargenate</b>)</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"></div><a name='more'></a><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;">Our four river guides are already there, having come the previous night and loaded the two rafts with enough provisions to keep everyone comfortable for the next eight days. I find out later that everything on the raft has its place. &nbsp;Our seat mattresses are also our sleeping pads. Each menu is packed in order of which day it would be served, in order to minimize the coolers being open. In the chill of early May having the coolers open might not be such an issue, but in the melting heat of mid-summer it could be critical, especially if you want ice with your evening cocktail. Oh, yeah.</span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;"><br /></span><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-q5LqqDdNCR8/Vjg1OPEAzQI/AAAAAAAAKnM/Bfrrmn6OhLo/s1600/012%2BLee%2527s%2BFerry.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="276" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-q5LqqDdNCR8/Vjg1OPEAzQI/AAAAAAAAKnM/Bfrrmn6OhLo/s400/012%2BLee%2527s%2BFerry.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Putting in at Lee's Ferry</td></tr></tbody></table><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;">We form bucket brigades to load the rest of the gear, drop our beer into mesh bags which will drag in the river alongside the raft, and listen to at least one more safety advisory (</span><i style="font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', serif;">Keep your life jacket on!</i><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;"> </span><i style="font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', serif;">Don’t wear flip flops like the guides do!</i><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;">). We all hop on board as gracefully as age will allow. The guides shove our J-rigs away from shore and point them in the direction we want to go.</span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;"><br /></span><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-J1tVUjXMqHI/Vjg1h4_V0kI/AAAAAAAAKnU/YeR9Rf7kQkE/s1600/015Kris.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="301" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-J1tVUjXMqHI/Vjg1h4_V0kI/AAAAAAAAKnU/YeR9Rf7kQkE/s400/015Kris.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Kris is all smiles as we start our adventure</td></tr></tbody></table><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;">We embark upon our geologic journey within the 245-million-year-old redbeds of the Early Triassic Moenkopi Formation, with its familiar “bacon stripe” layering as seen near Zion National Park. We are on the Colorado Plateau, where Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks have undergone little deformation since they were deposited starting 570 million years ago. A fold here, a fold there, but basically every layer is flat-lying in relation to those layers in contact above and below it. There are older rocks, however, that have their own tilted configuration, the Grand Canyon Supergroup of tilted Precambrian sedimentary rocks that are between 1.2 billion and 800 million years old, but they are days away. These outcrop only in very limited areas along the river, too, and so I hope the guides will point them out. For that matter, I hope the guides point out everything!</span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;"><br /></span><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-9c3qI4oHi-w/Vjg1vxln9-I/AAAAAAAAKnc/R8Oq-rNGYsM/s1600/017%2BPariaRiffle.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="301" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-9c3qI4oHi-w/Vjg1vxln9-I/AAAAAAAAKnc/R8Oq-rNGYsM/s400/017%2BPariaRiffle.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">View from the front of the raft</td></tr></tbody></table><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;">The river will take us “down section,’ from younger to older rocks, from flat-lying sedimentary layers into the swirls and whirls of metamorphic rocks in Granite Gorge. Again, those rocks are days away. For now, sedimentary rocks are the name of the game. Our rigs bounce gently across the Paria Riffle, where the tops of Middle Permian cliffs of 260-million-year-old fossil-rich Kaibab limestones peek at us at river level. These cliffs, along with the lower and older Toroweap slope-forming rocks, record the advancing and retreating of a shallow sea over the ancient western continent. They disappear from view, though, above and beyond the older cliffs of Coconino Sandstone that begin to appear at river level.</span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;"><br /></span><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-9yPEAim9ZkA/Vjg1_8XrG_I/AAAAAAAAKnk/0mfFLlwO2LE/s1600/021BoatFolks%2BNavajoBridges.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="301" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-9yPEAim9ZkA/Vjg1_8XrG_I/AAAAAAAAKnk/0mfFLlwO2LE/s400/021BoatFolks%2BNavajoBridges.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Coming up to Navajo Bridges</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;">Soon we pass beneath the cliffs Coconino Sandstone at the Navajo Bridges. It is a long way up to where Kris and I stood yesterday and gazed thoughtfully down at the river.</span></div><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;"><br /></span><br /><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-LgmHbTi8Lfw/Vjg2OvFStZI/AAAAAAAAKns/OyALqzJTUOo/s1600/023%2BBelowNavajo%2BBridges.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="301" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-LgmHbTi8Lfw/Vjg2OvFStZI/AAAAAAAAKns/OyALqzJTUOo/s400/023%2BBelowNavajo%2BBridges.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">View from the front</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;">We glide silently except for the occasional soft drone of the motor, which I can’t even hear unless I sit in the back. As the days pass, it becomes clear that there are “front of the boat” people and “back of the boat” people. I’ll bet you can guess which group I belong to from the get-go. I do take my turn in the back on occasion, though. The nice thing is that the back offers a sort of “bench seat” on top of a bunch of piled-up sleeping pads and so a gives view that skims the top of people’s heads instead of being blocked by the back of them. However, people in the back stay drier in the rapids than the folks in front, so I guess in the end everyone seems happy with their allotted space. When we come upon a rapid, though, everyone has to stay out of the way of the boatman with heads down, so he can steer us through without crashing onto any submerged rocks.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-hRuCjVd56AQ/Vjg2pikjDgI/AAAAAAAAKn0/9ZSzaTnov6k/s1600/027Rapid.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="301" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-hRuCjVd56AQ/Vjg2pikjDgI/AAAAAAAAKn0/9ZSzaTnov6k/s400/027Rapid.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Incoming rapids!</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;">Coconino Sandstone is Early Permian, around 275 million years old. It forms massive cliffs and is conspicuously cross-bedded, recording the movement across the arid landscape of a large Sahara Desert-like dune field that extended all the way to present-day Montana. As far as I can tell from my limited research, no body fossils (bones) have been found in the Coconino. These were pre-dinosaur days, and it is <i>the tracks</i> of small animals that are given a scientific name, not the animal itself. Vertebrate and invertebrate <b><i>trace fossils</i></b> (those sedimentary structures consisting of a fossilized burrow, track, trail, bore, or tunnel that resulted from the life <i>activity</i> of some animal) seem to be the only evidence that any organisms ever passed across these ancient dunes.</span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 14pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;">Researchers have carried out many experiments that compare fossil traces and those formed by modern organisms such as scorpions. With these smaller critters, it was dry sand that maintained an impression; they were unable to make any impression in moist, wet, or saturated sand. Larger modern critters such as lizards were able to leave tracks in wet or damp sand, though. It is thought, however, that the mists and fog of a coastal sand dune environment would have provided enough moisture to dampen and so preserve a track that had already been formed. Interestingly, the potential for track preservation in dry sand is thought by some researchers to be greater if the critter moved horizontally across the sand or <i>up</i> a dune slip face rather than down. On the other hand, if the sand was damp then a downslope-directed track was more likely to be preserved.</span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 14pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-b7NDR10nVyw/Vjg3CWCdMaI/AAAAAAAAKn8/fcnwTEszV0Q/s1600/033Coconino%2BSandstoneAbove%2BHermitShale.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-b7NDR10nVyw/Vjg3CWCdMaI/AAAAAAAAKn8/fcnwTEszV0Q/s400/033Coconino%2BSandstoneAbove%2BHermitShale.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Coconino Sandstone cliffs overly slope-forming Hermit Shale</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;">We continue down section on this afternoon of our first day, trying to absorb the grandeur of it all. Soon we bid farewell to the Coconino Sandstone at river level. The Hermit Shale awaits our curiosity, around the next bend in the river.</span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 14pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt;"><br /></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-VUDdgoJUX8Q/Vjg3RBs7BJI/AAAAAAAAKoE/h9-e0RnTUQE/s1600/034%2BHermitShale.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="227" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-VUDdgoJUX8Q/Vjg3RBs7BJI/AAAAAAAAKoE/h9-e0RnTUQE/s400/034%2BHermitShale.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Hermit Shale at river level</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt;"><br /></span><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif; font-size: 14.0pt;"></span><br /><div class="MsoNormal"><b><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif;">References:<span style="font-size: 14pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></b></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif;">Blakey, R. and Ranney, W., 2008, <i>Ancient Landscapes of the Colorado Plateau, </i>Grand Canyon Association<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif;">Collier, M., 1980, <i>An Introduction to Grand Canyon Geology</i>, Grand Canyon Natural History Association<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif;">Middleton, L., Elliott, D., and Morales, M., 2003, <i>Coconino Sandstone</i> in <i>Grand Canyon Geology</i>, 2nd edition, Beus, S. and Morales, M., eds., Oxford University Press<o:p></o:p></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;cambria&quot; , serif;">Stevens, L., 2013, <i>The Colorado River in Grand Canyon – River Map &amp; Guide</i>, Grand Canyon Wildlands Council<span style="font-size: 14pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></div></div>Nina Fhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08965179274125274725noreply@blogger.com2tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3549921150562790106.post-11886531333350459192015-10-28T14:51:00.001-06:002015-12-12T12:08:08.191-07:00Living the Dream, Day 1 – Rafting Grand Canyon<div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;">It had been, after all, a twist of someone else’s fate that my adventurous friend and I were even able to go this year. We were finally on our way to Flagstaff AZ, on the first day of our 2015 excellent adventure. We would be rafting down the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. We would run the full canyon in a surprisingly quiet motorized raft, 226 blissfully geologic miles from Lee’s Ferry to Diamond Creek, over eight days and seven nights. Let the stratigraphy begin!</span><o:p></o:p></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-X9aGKW_Ne3U/VjEjsMqAJ0I/AAAAAAAAKmI/tXhuiDLqfRE/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B002.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="300" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-X9aGKW_Ne3U/VjEjsMqAJ0I/AAAAAAAAKmI/tXhuiDLqfRE/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B002.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">View from Navajo Bridge - &nbsp;we would be on that river the next day<br />&nbsp;(<b>click on any pic&nbsp;</b><span style="font-size: 12.8px;"><b>to enlargenate</b>)</span></td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"></div><a name='more'></a><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;">I had been dreaming and researching raft companies for what seems like half my lifetime, and finally located a suitable outfitter in November of last year. I needed a trip that fit between the end-of-spring-semester of my teaching job and the first day of summer rangering at Yellowstone. With barely three weeks available, it would be a tight fit. The kindly voice on the phone at Arizona Raft Adventures (no particular promo, they just had the best dates) had several suggestions.</span><br /><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;calibri&quot; , sans-serif; font-size: 11.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-fareast; mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin;"><br /></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;"><i>“I can put you and your friend on a wait list for the May 6, 2015 trip. Let’s also put you on a wait list for 2016. And while we’re at it, let’s just wait list you for 2017, too.</i>”</span><o:p></o:p></div><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;">2017? Seriously? There is no way I can think that far ahead. I didn’t even know what I would be having for lunch that day. However, the kindly reassuring voice said that she felt there would be some cancellations on the May 2015 date of my choice. She advised us to hang in there. It turned out we did not have to hang anywhere for longer than a couple of weeks. As Jimmy Fallon might say on his Friday night segment, diving his pen arcfully towards a note card: “Thank you, persons who cancelled, for allowing me to put my life in the hands of interestingly grizzled yet utterly professional river guides for eight days.”&nbsp; Key cheesy tinkling piano music.</span><o:p></o:p></div><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-ho7Mkdiw4zM/VjEk6QMVnyI/AAAAAAAAKmQ/oZo5nxWAU8E/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B001.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="265" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-ho7Mkdiw4zM/VjEk6QMVnyI/AAAAAAAAKmQ/oZo5nxWAU8E/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B001.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">The old bridge across the Colorado River is now a pedestrian walkway&nbsp;</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;">On the drive south to Flagstaff we crossed the Colorado River at Navajo Bridge and stopped to ponder the river, entrenched within the walls of Permian-age Coconino Sandstone cliffs. Tomorrow we would be down on that river, looking up.</span><o:p></o:p></div><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-U3jqaiDh5tc/VjElFIm5dxI/AAAAAAAAKmY/V6BmnQvcePs/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B003.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" height="300" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-U3jqaiDh5tc/VjElFIm5dxI/AAAAAAAAKmY/V6BmnQvcePs/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B003.JPG" width="400" /></a></div><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;">Just north of town is Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument where we stopped to mosey along the Lava Flow trail. This part of northern Arizona has a history of volcanic activity going back six million years. Sunset Crater cinder cone is one of more than 600 volcanic hills and mountains in the Flagstaff volcanic field, and is a remnant of the most recent eruption that occurred between 1040 and 1100. We saved exploring the ruins of nearby Wupatki for another day.</span><o:p></o:p></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;"><br /></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-WIu_XkFnsSw/VjEoEnDxvMI/AAAAAAAAKmo/U20gbQDfzcA/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B004.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="300" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-WIu_XkFnsSw/VjEoEnDxvMI/AAAAAAAAKmo/U20gbQDfzcA/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B004.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Taking our time on the Lava Flow trail</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-nkNXr5_4NjE/VjEpRDWzLDI/AAAAAAAAKms/3V-gruOkjWU/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B008.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="300" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-nkNXr5_4NjE/VjEpRDWzLDI/AAAAAAAAKms/3V-gruOkjWU/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B008.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">The cinder cone of Sunset Crater</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-2zWaJkZK82I/VjEpZLjiDpI/AAAAAAAAKm0/gPy7Z8e5SQE/s1600/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B010.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="303" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-2zWaJkZK82I/VjEpZLjiDpI/AAAAAAAAKm0/gPy7Z8e5SQE/s400/GC%2BRaft%2BTrip%2B010.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Sunset Crater on our early spring day</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;georgia&quot; , &quot;times new roman&quot; , serif;">That evening at the hotel, Kris and I plopped ourselves into folding chairs in a cramped meeting room with 21 complete strangers who apparently would become our bffs by the end of the trip. Orientation instructions were reviewed and tents and sleeping bags distributed. Last-minute river items were available for purchase (like I hadn’t brought enough personal items to sink the Titanic?). We stuffed the rest of our worldly belongings into two well-worn dry bags of dubious seaworthiness and got ready to roll at 6am the next morning.&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></div><div class="MsoNormal"><b><br /></b></div><div class="MsoNormal"><b>Day 2: On the river!<o:p></o:p></b></div>Nina Fhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08965179274125274725noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3549921150562790106.post-86284457763601475942015-08-24T20:39:00.000-06:002015-08-24T20:39:17.014-06:00Beyond the Caldera – Breathtaking Beartooth Loop <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves/> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:DoNotPromoteQF/> <w:LidThemeOther>EN-US</w:LidThemeOther> <w:LidThemeAsian>X-NONE</w:LidThemeAsian> 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12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">I knew I would return before the summer faded into fall (I said so <a href="/2015/07/beyond-caldera-back-to-beartooths.html" target="_blank"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal;"><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">here</i></b></a>). I just had to find a <s>victim</s> Hiking Buddy willing to accompany me.&nbsp;</span></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; margin-bottom: 0in;"><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">Hey, Brian! Do you want to go hiking in the Beartooths?</span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; margin-bottom: 0in;"><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">Sure.</span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; margin-bottom: 0in;"><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">The trail head is around 10,400 feet above sea level.</span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; margin-bottom: 0in;"><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">No problem.</span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; margin-bottom: 0in;"><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">The loop is about 10 miles long.</span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal"><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">OK, whatever.</span></i></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-lBt-9NFC5jc/VdnFK_uY4II/AAAAAAAAKdw/AEFIzah-DS4/s1600/003BeartoothLoopTrailhead.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="230" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-lBt-9NFC5jc/VdnFK_uY4II/AAAAAAAAKdw/AEFIzah-DS4/s400/003BeartoothLoopTrailhead.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">I pose at the trailhead, blissfully unaware of the hiking nightmare that awaits me</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><a name='more'></a><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">Well. <b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal;"><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">that</i></b>was easy. 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mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">Oh, <b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal;"><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">that</i></b>detail.</span>&nbsp;</span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-B73PZviXbmg/VdnGEKdp9rI/AAAAAAAAKd4/vuuFEdxJoQY/s1600/006BeartoothLoopTrailhead.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="230" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-B73PZviXbmg/VdnGEKdp9rI/AAAAAAAAKd4/vuuFEdxJoQY/s400/006BeartoothLoopTrailhead.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Brian heads to Gardner Lake, blissfully unaware of the hiking nightmare that awaits him</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">Initially, all is bliss in the out-of-doors. I am beside myself with elation (<i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">Seriously? Elation? Who uses that word these days?</i>), surrounded by </span><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">glacially sculpted</span> 2.7 billion-year-old&nbsp; metamorphic rocks of the Beartooth Plateau of northern Wyoming.&nbsp;</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-0yr9ypTny80/VdnHXa_CNcI/AAAAAAAAKeE/k1MWJrXurVk/s1600/014GardnerLake%2B.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="230" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-0yr9ypTny80/VdnHXa_CNcI/AAAAAAAAKeE/k1MWJrXurVk/s400/014GardnerLake%2B.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Dancing past Gardner Lake</td><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><br /></td></tr></tbody></table></span><br /><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves/> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:DoNotPromoteQF/> <w:LidThemeOther>EN-US</w:LidThemeOther> <w:LidThemeAsian>X-NONE</w:LidThemeAsian> <w:LidThemeComplexScript>X-NONE</w:LidThemeComplexScript> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> <w:UseAsianBreakRules/> <w:DontGrowAutofit/> <w:SplitPgBreakAndParaMark/> <w:DontVertAlignCellWithSp/> <w:DontBreakConstrainedForcedTables/> <w:DontVertAlignInTxbx/> <w:Word11KerningPairs/> <w:CachedColBalance/> </w:Compatibility> <m:mathPr> 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This is a list of the most important things to carry when hiking in the wooly Wyoming wilderness. My pack feels like my Ten Essentials weigh forty pounds. In addition to the several layers I wear, the hat on my head, and the poles I use, I have packed my rain jacket, rain pants, extra hat, gloves, earmuffs, thermal top, bandana, eight pounds (one gallon) of water, a lighter, head lamp, whistle, extra glasses, emergency tarp, map, granola bars, cheese, nuts, dried fruit, fruit snacks in tiny bags, macaroni salad in a plastic container and a spoon to eat it with, snack-sized snickers bars, camera, and the requisite canister of pepper spray. It is a wonder I can even stand up straight, much less walk away from the car and down the trail without toppling over.&nbsp;</span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><br /></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-zvZghfQJd2U/VdnJPHj9OfI/AAAAAAAAKeQ/PhpX5NpN30I/s1600/030Precambrian%2BGraniticGneiss.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="231" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-zvZghfQJd2U/VdnJPHj9OfI/AAAAAAAAKeQ/PhpX5NpN30I/s400/030Precambrian%2BGraniticGneiss.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Rocks everywhere! <b>OLD</b> rocks!</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: 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mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} </style><![endif]--><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">At the first trail junction, I point to some rocks. We read the sign. We point to our map. Something about that sign is perplexing but we cannot quite put our finger on what it is.</span>&nbsp;</span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-F0cGKnNQuYg/VdnKE6YKfJI/AAAAAAAAKeY/ondL6mHFFds/s1600/032BrianPondering.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="230" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-F0cGKnNQuYg/VdnKE6YKfJI/AAAAAAAAKeY/ondL6mHFFds/s400/032BrianPondering.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Brian ponders the signage situation</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> 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font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} </style><![endif]--> </span></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; margin-bottom: 0in;"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">Ever the vigilant outdoorsperson, Brian is the first to comment on the obvious. </span></div><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">This trail seems to be going down.</span></i><br /><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><img border="0" height="230" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-01vhrZ9YCQg/VdnKgn47_aI/AAAAAAAAKeg/np-REndd0bI/s400/037DownAnd%2BAround%2BTibbsButte.JPG" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" width="400" /></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Tibbs Butte&nbsp;</td><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><br /></td></tr></tbody></table></span><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; 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mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} </style><![endif]--><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">I look vigilantly around at the outdoors.</span><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">&nbsp;</span></i></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt; text-align: left;"><i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">Why yes, I do believe it does.</span></i></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-z_G2ucuV9s4/VdnLWwlldEI/AAAAAAAAKeo/EsEMUd45WxE/s1600/045Brian.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="230" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-z_G2ucuV9s4/VdnLWwlldEI/AAAAAAAAKeo/EsEMUd45WxE/s400/045Brian.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Onward and downward!</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"></span><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves/> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> 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&quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">We proceed nevertheless. I didn’t get up at 0500 and drive for three hours to turn around now. 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mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} </style><![endif]--><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">Spine-tingling tracks appear in the muddy trail.</span><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"></span><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-s6IzcoA_HIc/VdnNC6GZ1VI/AAAAAAAAKfA/3bJoraQs2Dc/s1600/050WolfTrack.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="355" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-s6IzcoA_HIc/VdnNC6GZ1VI/AAAAAAAAKfA/3bJoraQs2Dc/s400/050WolfTrack.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Brian's paws did not make these tracks</td></tr></tbody></table></span><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: left;"><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> 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mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} </style><![endif]--><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">It’s getting past lunchtime by now. Do we really want to park ourselves where the owners of these spine-tingling impressions may be lingering hungrily in the underbrush? I feel the need to refuel, though. We decide to have a bite (<i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">Oooh, bad choice of words?</i>) after crossing Little Rock Creek, which in my case becomes <i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">falling into</i> Little Rock Creek. As Brian scampers adeptly to the other bank, I hem and haw about where to cross. Taking off my boots and socks and wading barefoot across slippery, slimy, broken, bowling ball-sized boulders is not the best idea in the world but I do it anyway. Of course, I go ass over teakettle into the ankle-deep drink and lose hold of my boots. I save my camera from drowning in the nick of time and use a hiking pole to lasso my boots and socks before they float downstream, never to be seen again. I do not relish (<i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">Seriously, again? Relish?</i>) the prospect of hiking five miles barefoot. I eventually stand up and waddle my wet self across the rocky remaining width of Little Rock Creek, but not without additional drama. What made the whole episode especially exasperating is that I missed seeing a nice, narrow spot to cross, a few yards downstream. </span> </div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"></span><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><br /></div><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-wZYGWCqJNJ0/VdnOoryHBZI/AAAAAAAAKfI/lBEBQoMueh8/s1600/053LittlerockCreek%2B.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="230" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-wZYGWCqJNJ0/VdnOoryHBZI/AAAAAAAAKfI/lBEBQoMueh8/s400/053LittlerockCreek%2B.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Little Rock Creek - the scene of my exasperation</td></tr></tbody></table></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"></span><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" DefUnhideWhenUsed="true" DefSemiHidden="true" DefQFormat="false" DefPriority="99" LatentStyleCount="267"> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="0" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Normal"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" 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feet while Brian hangs my squeezed-out socks on a branch. I am no longer hungry. It is not a comfortable situation, sitting there with no shoes on, in wolf and grizzly bear country, especially after seeing those tracks. Wet boots and socks being exponentially better than no boots and socks, I slip on my soggy footwear and we take off down (<i style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">still going down!</i>) the trail. Fortunately, the stream crossings we encounter from here on in do not offer quite this variety of white-knuckle thrill.</span><br /><div class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: left;"><br /></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-uzIDOp0yeok/VdnRgp0MWFI/AAAAAAAAKfU/fL-ETAZ4h1k/s1600/054DryingOff.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="231" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-uzIDOp0yeok/VdnRgp0MWFI/AAAAAAAAKfU/fL-ETAZ4h1k/s400/054DryingOff.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;;">Air-drying </span></td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: left;"><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: left;"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><img border="0" height="231" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-uUL2sqwZlUs/VdnR31cNHMI/AAAAAAAAKfc/8eZZOostm94/s400/055LittleRockCreek.JPG" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" width="400" /></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Little Rock Creek</td></tr></tbody></table></span><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves/> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> 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mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} </style><![endif]--><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">We come upon more tracks in the muddy sections of trail, and I wonder if it is one wolf or several. I also wonder if they know we are here, or if they are watching us right now. Together, Brian and I make enough noise to register on a seismograph, but you never really know what is lurking in that thick vegetation. To add another element to this already edgy mix, these tracks look quite fresh. I fondle my pepper spray canister frequently and move along.</span><br /><div class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: left;"><br /></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Nu6UrPYFj8o/VdnTAKmCs-I/AAAAAAAAKfo/ZiEVJWOdc2Q/s1600/058WolfTrack.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="391" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Nu6UrPYFj8o/VdnTAKmCs-I/AAAAAAAAKfo/ZiEVJWOdc2Q/s400/058WolfTrack.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Wolf track!</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: left;"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-kn7KDaNnD50/VdnTMngu8JI/AAAAAAAAKfw/Bh3BNjLIFlQ/s1600/059WolfTracks%2B.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="400" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-kn7KDaNnD50/VdnTMngu8JI/AAAAAAAAKfw/Bh3BNjLIFlQ/s400/059WolfTracks%2B.JPG" width="362" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">More wolf tracks!</td></tr></tbody></table></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" DefUnhideWhenUsed="true" DefSemiHidden="true" DefQFormat="false" DefPriority="99" LatentStyleCount="267"> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="0" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Normal"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" 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mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">Dropping still further in elevation, the trail contours through dense forest and skirts large outcrops of ancient granitic gneiss. I would love to linger here except for the fact that we have at least another five miles to go and 1500 feet of elevation to gain.</span></div><div class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: left;"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">&nbsp;<table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><img border="0" height="276" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Ub-rsp9Hi4k/VdnUbCtxAAI/AAAAAAAAKf8/hQzRci_HdLM/s400/067Precambrian%2BBedrock.JPG" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" width="400" /></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Lingering briefly at the metamorphic rocks</td></tr></tbody></table></span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><!--[if gte mso 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major-latin;">At the low point of the trail (around 8900’), we pass a spur to the old Camp Sawtooth and then traipse across a wide grassy wetland. Grizzly tracks are spine-tinglingly evident here so we avoid lollygagging. We noisily aim for a saddle between two large hills and thus begin our exhausting ascent back to the Beartooth Highway and my car. There is another trail sign but it is old and misleading, so after checking the map we take the right fork.</span></div><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><br /></div><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-zTQR8NvcRIU/VdnVTWrC0XI/AAAAAAAAKgE/T80ctWDTmXs/s1600/072GrizzlyTrack%2B.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="400" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-zTQR8NvcRIU/VdnVTWrC0XI/AAAAAAAAKgE/T80ctWDTmXs/s400/072GrizzlyTrack%2B.JPG" width="387" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Grizzly track</td></tr></tbody></table></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"></span><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-1Q5RkMETstY/VdnVmSwHDWI/AAAAAAAAKgM/jypPWDNqcVE/s1600/075Trailside.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="231" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-1Q5RkMETstY/VdnVmSwHDWI/AAAAAAAAKgM/jypPWDNqcVE/s400/075Trailside.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Precambrian trailside loveliness</td></tr></tbody></table></span> <span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"></span><br /><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"></span><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-AUUxfKWaWFc/VdnVxqTy-CI/AAAAAAAAKgU/3ypskDEvnGI/s1600/077TrailSign.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="230" 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mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} </style><![endif]--> <br /><div class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; margin-bottom: 0in;"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">Walking and breathing are definitely a struggle in this land of thin air. I read somewhere that there is 15% less oxygen at this elevation than at sea level. Why do I think of these things now? Step. Step. Pause. Step. Step. Pause. 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mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} </style><![endif]--><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">We pass another sign. I admire how some are lashed to the tree with what appears to be old shoelaces. With our inherent route-finding abilities and natural inclination to point north, Brian and I pick a trail and go for it.</span></span></div><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;"><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-OHtcT96DVdU/VdsUy5YmsiI/AAAAAAAAKgw/kMpHcqbikDc/s1600/084StockadeLake%2B.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="230" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-OHtcT96DVdU/VdsUy5YmsiI/AAAAAAAAKgw/kMpHcqbikDc/s400/084StockadeLake%2B.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr align="center"><td class="tr-caption">Stockade Lake - at last!</td></tr></tbody></table></span></span><br /><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves/> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:DoNotPromoteQF/> <w:LidThemeOther>EN-US</w:LidThemeOther> <w:LidThemeAsian>X-NONE</w:LidThemeAsian> <w:LidThemeComplexScript>X-NONE</w:LidThemeComplexScript> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> 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mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;">Step. Step. Pause.</span></span></div><table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="tr-caption-container" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; text-align: center;"><tbody><tr><td style="text-align: center;"><a href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-K2Ku3nEH0J8/VdsWIQM8XvI/AAAAAAAAKg4/CE2PYW7ekTE/s1600/085LosekampLake.JPG" imageanchor="1" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"><img border="0" height="231" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-K2Ku3nEH0J8/VdsWIQM8XvI/AAAAAAAAKg4/CE2PYW7ekTE/s400/085LosekampLake.JPG" width="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td class="tr-caption" style="text-align: center;">Now we're getting somewhere - Losekamp Lake</td></tr></tbody></table><div class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-fareast-font-family: 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UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" SemiHidden=&